Cellular uptake and metabolism of flavonoids and their metabolites: implications for their bioactivity
Spencer, J. P. E., El Mohsen, M. M. A. and Rice-Evans, C. (2004) Cellular uptake and metabolism of flavonoids and their metabolites: implications for their bioactivity. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 423 (1). pp. 148-161. ISSN 0003-9861
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1016/j.abb.2003.11.010
Flavonoids have been proposed to act as beneficial agents in a multitude of disease states, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. The biological effect of these polyphenols and their in vivo circulating metabolites will ultimately depend on the extent to which they associate with cells, either by interactions at the membrane or more importantly their uptake. This review summarises the current knowledge on the cellular uptake of flavonoids and their metabolites with particular relevance to further intracellular metabolism and the generation of potential new bioactive forms. Uptake and metabolism of the circulating forms of flavanols, flavonols, and flavanones into cells of the skin, the brain, and cancer cells is reviewed and potential biological relevance to intracellular formed metabolites is discussed.