Effects of phosphates and citrate on sediment formation in UHT goats' milk
Boumpa, T., Tsioulpas, A., Grandison, A.S. and Lewis, M.J. (2008) Effects of phosphates and citrate on sediment formation in UHT goats' milk. Journal of Dairy Research, 75 (2). pp. 160-166. ISSN 0022-0299
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1017/s0022029908003166
Sediment formation was investigated during UHT treatment of goats' milk, subjected to indirect treatment at 140 degrees C for 2 s, with upstream homogenisation. Stabilisers evaluated were sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP), trisodium citrate (TSC), disodium hydrogen orthophosphate (DSHP), and sodium dihydrogen orthophosphate (SDHP). With no added stabiliser, goats' milk produced a heavy sediment on UHT treatment. Addition of SDHP reduced pH, had little effect on ionic calcium and did not substantially reduce sediment. However, addition of SHMP, DSHP and TSC each reduced ionic calcium, increased ethanol stability and reduced sediment. Following stabiliser additions, there was a good correlation between ethanol stability and ionic calcium (R-2=0.85) but not between ethanol stability and pH (R-2=0.08). Overall, reducing ionic calcium reduced the amount of sediment formed for all these three stabilisers, although there was no single trend line between sediment formation and ionic calcium concentration. Sediment formation was not well correlated with pH for TSC or for SHMP, but it was for DSHP, making it the only stabiliser where sediment formation correlated well both with ionic calcium and pH, which might account for its effectiveness at higher ionic calcium levels. Sediment was much reduced when the temperature was reduced from 140 degrees C to 125 degrees C and 114 degrees C. There were no further changes in sediment on storage for two weeks. Analysis of the sediment showed that it was predominantly fat and protein, with a mass ratio ranging between 1.43:1 and 1.67:1. Its mineral content was usually less than 5% of dry weight. The maximum amounts of P and Ca were found to be 2.32% and 1.63%, respectively.