Optokinetic stimulation induces illusory movement of both out-of-the-body and on-the-body hand-held visual objects
Revol, P., Farne, A., Pisella, L., Holmes, N.P., Imai, A., Koga, K. and Rossetti, Y. (2009) Optokinetic stimulation induces illusory movement of both out-of-the-body and on-the-body hand-held visual objects. Experimental Brain Research, 193 (4). pp. 633-638. ISSN 0014-4819
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1007/s00221-008-1696-y
The coding of body part location may depend upon both visual and proprioceptive information, and allows targets to be localized with respect to the body. The present study investigates the interaction between visual and proprioceptive localization systems under conditions of multisensory conflict induced by optokinetic stimulation (OKS). Healthy subjects were asked to estimate the apparent motion speed of a visual target (LED) that could be located either in the extrapersonal space (visual encoding only, V), or at the same distance, but stuck on the subject's right index finger-tip (visual and proprioceptive encoding, V-P). Additionally, the multisensory condition was performed with the index finger kept in position both passively (V-P passive) and actively (V-P active). Results showed that the visual stimulus was always perceived to move, irrespective of its out- or on-the-body location. Moreover, this apparent motion speed varied consistently with the speed of the moving OKS background in all conditions. Surprisingly, no differences were found between V-P active and V-P passive conditions in the speed of apparent motion. The persistence of the visual illusion during the active posture maintenance reveals a novel condition in which vision totally dominates over proprioceptive information, suggesting that the hand-held visual stimulus was perceived as a purely visual, external object despite its contact with the hand.