Growth of melanocytic cells is associated with down-regulation of protein kinase C α,δ and ε isoforms: Possible role of diacylglycerol
Brooks, G., Goss, M.W., East, J.A. and Hart, I.R. (1993) Growth of melanocytic cells is associated with down-regulation of protein kinase C α,δ and ε isoforms: Possible role of diacylglycerol. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 268. pp. 23868-23875. ISSN 1083-351X
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Protein kinase C (PKC) down-regulation has been shown to correlate with the growth of murine melanocytic cells in culture (Brooks, G., Wilson, R. E., Dooley, T. P., Goss, M. W., and Hart, I. R. (1991) Cancer Res. 51, 3281-3288). We now show that PKC alpha, delta, epsilon, and zeta isoforms are present at the protein level in quiescent, non-transformed Mel-ab melanocytes, maintained in the absence of phorbol ester. Proliferation of Mel-ab cells, achieved by incubation in the continual presence of phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, was associated with a down-regulation of the PKC alpha, delta, and epsilon isozymes. Examination of two transformed syngeneic lines (the B16 murine melanoma and the long terminal repeat Ras.2 line), that grew in the absence of exogenous phorbol esters, showed that PKC alpha protein levels were either partially down-regulated or unaffected, the PKC delta and epsilon isoforms were down-regulated completely, and the levels of PKC zeta protein remained unaltered relative to quiescent Mel-ab cells. Basal levels of total diacylglycerol were elevated 5-fold in B16 melanoma cells compared with levels found in quiescent or proliferating Mel-ab melanocytes and appear to arise largely from the breakdown of phosphatidylinositol phospholipids accompanied by a significant rise in phospholipase C activity. Hourly treatments of quiescent Mel-ab melanocytes with the synthetic diacylglycerol analogue, 1,2-dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol, for 24 h, resulted in an induction of DNA synthesis which was associated with a significant down-regulation of PKC levels mediated largely via post-translational rather than transcriptional mechanisms. These results show for the first time that specific isoforms of PKC are down-regulated at the protein level during proliferation of murine melanocytic cells and suggest that the constitutive down-regulation of PKC in transformed melanoma cells may arise as a consequence of elevated endogenous phosphatidylinositol-derived diacylglycerol levels.