Synergistic effects of geographical strain, temperature and larval food on insecticide tolerance in Callosobruchus maculatus (F.)
Gbaye, O.A., Millard, J.C. and Holloway, G. (2012) Synergistic effects of geographical strain, temperature and larval food on insecticide tolerance in Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). Journal of Applied Entomology, 136 (4). pp. 282-291. ISSN 0931-2048
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0418.2011.01637.x
This study investigated the multifactorial interaction of various environmental factors including 17 geographical strain (Brazil, Cameroon and Yemen strains), temperature, dose and larval food 18 (cowpea and mungbean) on the response of Callosobruchus maculatus adult to insecticide. All 19 the main factors, their two-way interactions and the four-way interaction had significant effects 20 on C. maculatus response to malathion (an organophosphate insecticide). However, the three-21 way interactions were not statistically significant (except strain x food x dose, P = 0.002). The 22 2 Brazil strain was the most responsive to temperature irrespective of the larval food type. The 23 impact of food type differs from one strain to the other, for instance, the food that imparts higher 24 tolerance in a strain might reduce the tolerance in another. Likewise, the hierarchy of tolerance 25 among the cowpea-reared strains (Brazil > Cameroon > Yemen) was totally different from the 26 mungbean-reared strains (Cameroon > Yemen > Brazil). The reasons for these differences were 27 discussed in the light of their impact on C. maculatus management. The management of both C. 28 maculatus and development of resistance could be complex, hence, the states of a variety of 29 environmental factors need to be considered. This is necessary in order to maximize management 30 success of this bruchid especially in tropical/subtropical developing countries.