Urban microclimates and simulation
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This chapter examines the workings of urban microclimates and looks at the associated causes and effects of the urban heat island (UHI). It also clarifies the relationship between urban form and the key climatic parameters (sun, daylight, wind, temperature). A particular section is devoted to the concepts of UHI intensity and sky view factor (SVF); these are useful indicators for researchers in this area. The challenge of how to model urban microclimates is covered, featuring the six archetypal urban forms familiar to analysts involved in using simulation software. The latter sections address the issue of urban thermal comfort, the importance of urban ventilation and finally what mitigating strategies can be implemented to curb negative UHI effects.