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Protease-activated receptors: mechanisms by which proteases sensitize TRPV channels to induce neurogenic inflammation and pain

Grant, A., Amadesi, S. and Bunnett, N. W. (2006) Protease-activated receptors: mechanisms by which proteases sensitize TRPV channels to induce neurogenic inflammation and pain. In: Heller, S. and Liedtke, W. B. (eds.) TRP Ion Channel Function in Sensory Transduction and Cellular Signaling Cascades. CRC Press, pp. 422-434. ISBN 9781420005844 (Chapter 8)

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To link to this item DOI: 10.1201/9781420005844.ch31

Abstract/Summary

Proteolytic enzymes comprise approximately 2 percent of the human genome [1]. Given their abundance, it is not surprising that proteases have diverse biological functions, ranging from the degradation of proteins in lysosomes to the control of physiological processes such as the coagulation cascade. However, a subset of serine proteases (possessing serine residues within their catalytic sites), which may be soluble in the extracellular fluid or tethered to the plasma membrane, are signaling molecules that can specifically regulate cells by cleaving protease-activated receptors (PARs), a family of four G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). These serine proteases include members of the coagulation cascade (e.g., thrombin, factor VIIa, and factor Xa), proteases from inflammatory cells (e.g., mast cell tryptase, neutrophil cathepsin G), and proteases from epithelial tissues and neurons (e.g., trypsins). They are often generated or released during injury and inflammation, and they cleave PARs on multiple cell types, including platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, myocytes, fibroblasts, and cells of the nervous system. Activated PARs regulate many essential physiological processes, such as hemostasis, inflammation, pain, and healing. These proteases and their receptors have been implicated in human disease and are potentially important targets for therapy. Proteases and PARs participate in regulating most organ systems and are the subject of several comprehensive reviews [2, 3]. Within the central and peripheral nervous systems, proteases and PARs can control neuronal and astrocyte survival, proliferation and morphology, release of neurotransmitters, and the function and activity of ion channels, topics that have also been comprehensively reviewed [4, 5]. This chapter specifically concerns the ability of PARs to regulate TRPV channels of sensory neurons and thereby affect neurogenic inflammation and pain transmission [6, 7].

Item Type:Book or Report Section
Refereed:Yes
Divisions:No Reading authors. Back catalogue items
Faculty of Life Sciences > School of Chemistry, Food and Pharmacy > School of Pharmacy > Division of Pharmacology
ID Code:35806
Publisher:CRC Press

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