Analysis of red and yellow ochre samples from Clearwell Caves and Catalhoyuk by vibrational spectroscopy and other techniques
Mortimore, J. L., Marshall, L. J. R., Almond, M. J., Hollins, P. and Matthews, W. (2004) Analysis of red and yellow ochre samples from Clearwell Caves and Catalhoyuk by vibrational spectroscopy and other techniques. Spectrochimica Acta Part a-Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 60 (5). pp. 1179-1188. ISSN 1386-1425
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2003.08.002
Ochre samples excavated from the neolithic site at Qatalhoyuk, Turkey have been compared with "native" ochres from Clearwell Caves, UK using infrared spectroscopy backed up by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (with energy-dispersive X-rays (EDX) analysis), powder X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflection UV-Vis and atomic absorption spectroscopies. For the Clearwell Caves ochres, which range in colour from yellow-orange to red-brown, it is shown that the colour is related to the nature of the chromophore present and not to any differences in particle size. The darker red ochres contain predominantly haematite while the yellow ochre contains only goethite. The ochres from Qatalhoyuk contain only about one-twentieth of the levels of iron found in the Clearwell Caves ochres. The iron oxide pigment (haematite in all cases studied here) has been mixed with a soft lime plaster which also contains calcite and silicate (clay) minerals. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.