Changing state disruption of lip-reading by irrelevant sound in perceptual and memory tasks
Campbell, T., Beaman, C. P. and Berry, D. C. (2002) Changing state disruption of lip-reading by irrelevant sound in perceptual and memory tasks. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 14 (4). pp. 461-474. ISSN 1464-0635
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1080/09541440143000168
Three experiments investigated irrelevant sound interference of lip-read lists. In Experiment 1, an acoustically changing sequence of nine irrelevant utterances was more disruptive to spoken immediate identification of lists of nine lip-read digits than nine repetitions of the same utterances (the changing-state effect; Jones, Madden, & Miles, 1992). Experiment 2 replicated this finding when lip-read items were sampled with replacement from the nine digits to form the lip-read lists. In Experiment 3, when the irrelevant sound was confined to the retention interval of a delayed recall task, a changing-state pattern of disruption also occurred. Results confirm a changing-state effect in memory for lip-read items but also point to the possibility that, for lip-reading, changing-state effects may occur at an earlier, perceptual stage.