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Endothelin signalling in the cardiac myocyte and its pathophysiological relevance

Sugden, P. H. and Clerk, A. (2005) Endothelin signalling in the cardiac myocyte and its pathophysiological relevance. Current vascular pharmacology, 3 (4). pp. 343-351. ISSN 1570-1611

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To link to this item DOI: 10.2174/157016105774329390

Abstract/Summary

Endothelin A (ET(A)) transmembrane receptors predominate in rat cardiac myocytes. These are G protein-coupled receptors whose actions are mediated by the G(q) heterotrimeric G proteins. Through these, ET-1 binding to ET(A)-receptors stimulates the hydrolysis of membrane phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate to diacylglycerol and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. Diacylglycerol remains in the membrane whereas inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate is soluble (though its importance in the cardiac myocyte is still debated). Isoforms of the phospholipid-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C (PKC), are intracellular receptors for diacylglycerol. Cytoplasmic nPKCdelta and nPKCepsilon detect increases in membrane diacylglycerols and translocate to the membrane. This brings about PKC activation, though modifications additional to binding to phospholipids and diacylglycerol are involved. The next event (probably associated with PKC activation) is the activation of the membrane-bound small G protein Ras by exchange of GTP for GDP. Ras.GTP loading translocates Raf family mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase kinases to the membrane, initiates the activation of Raf, and thus activates the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) cascade. Over longer times, two analogous protein kinase cascades, the c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades, become activated. As the signals originating from the ET(A) receptor are transmitted through these protein kinase pathways, other signalling molecules become phosphorylated, thus changing their biological activities. For example, ET-1 increases the expression of the c-jun transcription factor gene, and increases abundance and phosphorylation of c-Jun protein. These changes in c-Jun expression and phosphorylation are likely to be important in the regulation of gene transcription.

Item Type:Article
Refereed:No
Divisions:Faculty of Life Sciences > School of Biological Sciences > Biomedical Sciences
ID Code:51243
Publisher:Bentham Science

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