An integrative model of amino acid metabolism in the liver of the lactating dairy cow
Hartigan, M. D., Crompton, L. A., Reynolds, C. K., Wray-Cahen, D., Lomax, M. A. and France, J. (2004) An integrative model of amino acid metabolism in the liver of the lactating dairy cow. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 228 (2). pp. 271-289. ISSN 0022-5193
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1016/j.jtbi.2004.01.010
The objective of this work was to construct a dynamic model of hepatic amino acid metabolism in the lactating dairy cow that could be parameterized using net flow data from in vivo experiments. The model considers 22 amino acids, ammonia, urea, and 13 energetic metabolites, and was parameterized using a steady-state balance model and two in vivo, net flow experiments conducted with mid-lactation dairy cows. Extracellular flows were derived directly from the observed data. An optimization routine was used to derive nine intracellular flows. The resulting dynamic model was found to be stable across a range of inputs suggesting that it can be perturbed and applied to other physiological states. Although nitrogen was generally in balance, leucine was in slight deficit compared to predicted needs for export protein synthesis, suggesting that an alternative source of leucine (e.g. peptides) was utilized. Simulations of varying glucagon concentrations indicated that an additional 5 mol/d of glucose could be synthesized at the reference substrate concentrations and blood flows. The increased glucose production was supported by increased removal from blood of lactate, glutamate, aspartate, alanine, asparagine, and glutamine. As glucose Output increased, ketone body and acetate release increased while CO2 release declined. The pattern of amino acids appearing in hepatic vein blood was affected by changes in amino acid concentration in portal vein blood, portal blood flow rate and glucagon concentration, with methionine and phenylalanine being the most affected of essential amino acids. Experimental evidence is insufficient to determine whether essential amino acids are affected by varying gluconeogenic demands. (C) 2004 Published by Elsevier Ltd.