Accessibility navigation

Chemical composition, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of Leaves of Ajuga iva

Ammar, H., Touihri, I., Kholif, A. E. ORCID:, M’Rabet, Y. ORCID:, Jaouadi, R., Chahine, M., Marti, M. E. d. H., Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E. ORCID: and Hosni, K. ORCID: (2022) Chemical composition, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of Leaves of Ajuga iva. Molecules, 27 (20). 7102. ISSN 1420-3049

Text (Open Access) - Published Version
· Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.
· Please see our End User Agreement before downloading.


It is advisable to refer to the publisher's version if you intend to cite from this work. See Guidance on citing.

To link to this item DOI: 10.3390/molecules27207102


The main objective of this research was to study the biological characteristics in terms of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Ajuga iva and determine the best analytical and extraction methods applicable to this specie and studied compounds. A short screening of its nutritional value in terms of chemical composition is also included. A. iva leaves were analyzed for crude protein (CP), cell wall [neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and acid detergent lignin (ADL)], minerals, fatty acids, essential oils, and phenolic compounds. Mature aerial parts of A. iva were randomly collected during the Spring season from Mograne-Zaghouan, Tunisia. Leaves of A. iva contained 13.4 ± 0.4% CP, 26.3 ± 0.35% NDF, 20.2 ± 0.42% ADF, and 5.13 ± 0.21% ADL. Mineral content (13.0 ± 0.45%) was mainly composed of potassium (4.5% g DM) and magnesium (4.25% DM). Leaves of A. iva had linolenic (26.29 ± 0.760%) and linoleic (37.66 ± 2.35%) acids as the main components of the acid profile. Thymol was found to be the most dominant (23.43%) essential oil, followed by 4-vinylguaiacol (14.27%) and linalool (13.66%). HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS/MS analysis pointed out the presence of phytoecdysteroids. Phenolic acids and flavonoids, such as glycosylated derivatives of naringenin, eriodyctiol, and apigenin, were detected in the methanol extract of A. iva leaves. Our results underline the importance of choosing proper extraction methods and solvents to extract and characterize the described compounds profile of A. iva leaves. Results also show A. iva leaves as a potential source of functional ingredients with beneficial health-promoting properties. Overall, leaves of A. iva have low biological activities (antioxidant and antimicrobial activities) with a chemical composition suitable as a feed for ruminants in rangeland pasture. It also has low-grade antibacterial or medicinal characteristics when fed to ruminants.

Item Type:Article
Divisions:Life Sciences > School of Agriculture, Policy and Development > Department of Animal Sciences
ID Code:108644
Uncontrolled Keywords:Article, Ajuga iva L., antimicrobial activity, antioxidant activity, fatty acids, HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS/MS, phenolics, essential oil
Additional Information:** Article version: VoR ** From MDPI via Jisc Publications Router ** Licence for VoR version of this article: ** Peer reviewed: TRUE ** Journal IDs: eissn 1420-3049 ** Article IDs: publisher-id: molecules-27-07102 ** History: published_online 20-10-2022; accepted 17-10-2022; collection 10-2022; submitted 22-08-2022


Downloads per month over past year

University Staff: Request a correction | Centaur Editors: Update this record

Page navigation