Chronic toxicity of ibuprofen to Daphnia magna: Effects on life history traits and population dynamics
Heckmann, L. H., Callaghan, A., Hooper, H. L., Connon, R., Hutchinson, T. H., Maund, S. J. and Sibly, R. M. (2007) Chronic toxicity of ibuprofen to Daphnia magna: Effects on life history traits and population dynamics. Toxicology Letters, 172 (3). pp. 137-145. ISSN 0378-4274
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2007.06.001
The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) ibuprofen (IB) is a widely used pharmaceutical that can be found in several freshwater ecosystems. Acute toxicity studies with Daphnia magna suggest that the 48 h EC50 (immobilisation) is 10-100 mg IB l(-1). However, there are currently no chronic IB toxicity dataon arthropod populations, and the aquatic life impacts of such analgesic drugs are still undefined. We performed a 14-day exposure of D. magna to IB as a model compound (concentration range: 0, 20, 40 and 80 mg IB l(-1)) measuring chronic effects on life history traits and population performance. Population growth rate was significantly reduced at all IB concentrations, although survival was only affected at 80 mg IB l(-1). Reproduction, however, was affected at lower concentrations of IB (14-day EC50 of 13.4 mg IB l(-1)), and was completely inhibited at the highest test concentration. The results from this study indicate that the long-term crustacean population consequences of a chronic IB exposure at environmentally realistic concentrations (ng l(-1) to mu g l(-1)) would most likely be of minor importance. We discuss our results in relation to recent genomic studies, which suggest that the potential mechanism of toxicity in Daphnia is similar to the mode of action in mammals, where IB inhibits eicosanoid biosynthesis. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.