Adventitious root formation in anacardium occidentale L. in response to phytohormones and removal of roots
Saranga, J. and Cameron, R. (2007) Adventitious root formation in anacardium occidentale L. in response to phytohormones and removal of roots. Scientia Horticulturae, 111 (2). pp. 164-172. ISSN 0304-4238
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1016/j.scienta.2006.10.010
Despite advances in tissue culture techniques, propagation by leafy, softwood cuttings is the preferred, practical system for vegetative reproduction of many tree and shrub species. Species are frequently defined as 'difficult'- or 'easy-to-root' when propagated by conventional cuttings. Speed of rooting is often linked with ease of propagation, and slow-to-root species may be 'difficult' precisely because tissues deteriorate prior to the formation of adventitious roots. Even when roots form, limited development of these may impair the establishment of a cutting. In this study we used softwood cuttings of cashew (Anacardium occidentale), a species considered as 'difficult-to-root'. We aimed to test the hypothesis that speed, and extent of early rooting, is critical in determining success with this species; and that the potential to form adventitious roots will decrease with time in the propagation environment. Using two genotypes, initial rooting rates were examined in the presence or absence of exogenous auxin. In cuttings that formed adventitious roots, either entire roots or root tips were removed, to determine if further root formation/development was feasible. To investigate if subsequent root responses were linked to phytohormone action, a number of cuttings were also treated with either exogenous auxin (indole-3-butyric acid-IBA) or cytokinin (zeatin). Despite the reputation of Anacardium as being 'difficult-to-root', we found high rooting rates in two genotypes (AC 10 and CCP 1001). Removing adventitious roots from cuttings and returning them to the propagation environment, resulted in subsequent re-rooting. Indeed, individual cuttings could develop new adventitious roots on four to five separate occasions over a 9 week period. Data showed that rooting potential increased, not decreased with time in the propagation environment and that cutting viability was unaffected. Root expression was faster (8-15 days) after the removal of previous roots compared to when the cuttings were first stuck (21 days). Exposing cuttings to IBA at the time of preparation, improved initial rooting in AC 10, but not in CCP 1001. Application of IBA once roots had formed had little effect on subsequent development, but zeatin reduced root length and promoted root number and dry matter accumulation. These results challenge our hypothesis, and indicate that rooting potential remains high in Anacardium. The precise mechanisms that regulate the number of adventitious roots expressed, remain to be determined. Nevertheless, results indicate that rooting potential can be high in 'difficult-to-root' species, and suggest that providing supportive environments is the key to expressing this potential. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.