The effect of carrier substrate, dose rate and time of application on biocontrol efficacy of fungal antagonists against Armillaria root rot of strawberry plants.
Raziq, F. and Fox, R.T.V. (2004) The effect of carrier substrate, dose rate and time of application on biocontrol efficacy of fungal antagonists against Armillaria root rot of strawberry plants. Biological Agriculture & Horticulture, 22 (2). pp. 157-172. ISSN 0144-8765
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In a glasshouse experiment using potted strawberry plants (cv. Cambridge Favourite) as hosts, the effect of selected fungal antagonists grown on 25 or 50 g of mushroom compost containing autoclaved mycelia of Agaricus bisporus, or wheat bran was evaluated against Armillaria mellea. Another glasshouse experiment tested the effect of application time of the antagonists in relation to inoculations with the pathogen. A significant interaction was found between the antagonists, substrates and dose rates. All the plants treated with Chaetomium olivaceum isolate Co on 50 g wheat bran survived until the end of the experiment which lasted 482 days, while none of them survived when this antagonist was added to the roots of the plants on 25 g wheat bran or 25 or 50 g mushroom compost. Dactylium dendroides isolate SP had a similar effect, although with a lower host survival rate of 33.3%. Trichoderma hamatum isolate Tham 1 and T. harzianum isolate Th23 protected 33.3% of the plants when added on 50 g and none when added on 25 g of either substrate, while 66.7% of the plants treated with T. harzianum isolate Th2 on 25 g, or T viride isolate TO on 50 g wheat bran, survived. Application of the antagonists on mushroom compost initially resulted in development of more leaves and healthier plants, but this effect was not sustained. Eventually, plants treated with the antagonists on wheat bran had significantly more leaves and higher health scores. The plants treated with isolate Th2 and inoculated with Armillaria at the same time had a survival rate of 66.7% for the duration of the experiment (475 days), while none of them survived that long when the antagonist and pathogen were applied with an interval of 85 days in either sequence. C. olivaceum isolate Co showed a protective effect only, as 66.7% of the plants survived when they were treated with the antagonist 85 days before inoculation with the pathogen, while none of them survived when the antagonist and pathogen were applied together or the infection preceded protection.
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