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Metabolism of Rhizobium bacteroids

Lodwig, E. and Poole, P. (2003) Metabolism of Rhizobium bacteroids. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 22 (1). pp. 37-78. ISSN 0735-2689

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To link to this item DOI: 10.1080/0735268031878372

Abstract/Summary

Nitrogen fixation within legume nodules results from a complex metabolic exchange between bacteria of the family Rhizobiaciae and the plant host. Carbon is supplied to the differentiated bacterial cells, termed bacteroids, in the form of dicarboxylic acids to fuel nitrogen fixation. In exchange, fixed nitrogen is transferred to the plant. Both the bacteroid and the plant-derived peribacteroid membrane tightly regulate the exchange of metabolites. In the bacteroid oxidation of dicarboxylic acids via the TCA cycle occurs in an oxygen-limited environment. This restricts the TCA cycle at key points, such as the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex, and requires that inputs of carbon and reductant are balanced with outputs from the TCA cycle. This may be achieved by metabolism through accessory pathways that can remove intermediates, reductant, or ATP from the cycle. These include synthesis of the carbon polymers PHB and glycogen and bypass pathways such as the recently identified 2-oxoglutarate decarboxylase reaction in soybean bacteroids. Recent labeling data have shown that bacteroids synthesize and secrete amino acids, which has led to controversy over the role of amino acids in nodule metabolism. Here we review bacteroid carbon metabolism in detail, evaluate the labeling studies that relate to amino acid metabolism by bacteroids, and place the work in context with the genome sequences of Mesorhizobium loti and Sinorhizobium meliloti. We also consider a wider range of metabolic pathways that are probably of great importance to rhizobia in the rhizosphere, during nodule initiation, infection thread development, and bacteroid development.

Item Type:Article
Refereed:Yes
Divisions:Faculty of Life Sciences > School of Biological Sciences
ID Code:10808
Uncontrolled Keywords:bacteroid, metabolism, tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA), dicarboxylates, amino acids, poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB), glycogen, legume, Rhizobium, POLY-BETA-HYDROXYBUTYRATE, SOYBEAN ROOT-NODULES, BRADYRHIZOBIUM-JAPONICUM BACTEROIDS, SYMBIOTIC NITROGEN-FIXATION, PHASEOLUS-VULGARIS L, LEGUMINOSARUM BV VICIAE, FLOW-CHAMBER REACTIONS, SIGMA(54)-DEPENDENT TRANSCRIPTIONAL ACTIVATOR, ALPHA-KETOGLUTARATE, DEHYDROGENASE, C-4-DICARBOXYLATE TRANSPORT GENES

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