Incorporation of in situ and biomarker assays in higher-tier assessment of the aquatic toxicity of insecticides
Maycock, D. S., Prenner, M. M., Kheir, R., Morris, S., Callaghan, A., Whitehouse, P., Morritt, D. and Crane, M. (2003) Incorporation of in situ and biomarker assays in higher-tier assessment of the aquatic toxicity of insecticides. Water Research, 37 (17). pp. 4180-4190. ISSN 0043-1354
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1016/s0043-1354(03)00337-3
This study was designed to test the feasibility of integrating in situ, single species exposures and biomarker analysis into microcosm studies. Experimental ponds were dosed with pirimiphos methyl (PM) and lindane. C. riparius fourth instar larvae were deployed for 48 h on nine separate occasions during the study period before and after treatment. Surviving larvae were analysed for acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE). Survival and biomarker data were compared to chironomid assemblage analysis by monitoring insects emerging from the microcosms. Survival of chironomids within the in situ systems commenced on day + 16 after treatment with 31.6% and 53.3% survival in the lindane and PM treated ponds, respectively. In contrast, the first emergence from the microcosms occurred on days + 27, in respect to lindane, and + 59 for the PM treated ponds. Thus the in situ bioassay was able to demonstrate gradual reduction in toxicity within the sediment before this was evident from macroinvertebrate monitoring. Significant ACNE inhibition was only detected on exposure to PM. Levels decreased from 75% on day + 16 to 26% by day +29. The biomarker analysis confirmed that, by the end of the study, the insecticide was no longer exerting an effect. We discuss how the use of in situ bioassays could also aid comparison of microcosm studies by adding a standardized dimension. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.