Evolution of the eye-end design of a composite leaf spring for heavy axle loads
Hou, J. P., Cherruault, J. Y., Nairne, I., Jeronimidis, G. and Mayer, R. M. (2007) Evolution of the eye-end design of a composite leaf spring for heavy axle loads. Composite Structures, 78 (3). pp. 351-358. ISSN 0263-8223
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2005.10.008
This paper presents the design evolution process of a composite leaf spring for freight rail applications. Three designs of eye-end attachment for composite leaf springs are described. The material used is glass fibre reinforced polyester. Static testing and finite element analysis have been carried out to obtain the characteristics of the spring. Load-deflection curves and strain measurement as a function of load for the three designs tested have been plotted for comparison with FEA predicted values. The main concern associated with the first design is the delamination failure at the interface of the fibres that have passed around the eye and the spring body, even though the design can withstand 150 kN static proof load and one million cycles fatigue load. FEA results confirmed that there is a high interlaminar shear stress concentration in that region. The second design feature is an additional transverse bandage around the region prone to delamination. Delamination was contained but not completely prevented. The third design overcomes the problem by ending the fibres at the end of the eye section.