Calculating the ocean's mean dynamic topography from a mean sea surface and a geoid
Bingham, R.J., Haines, K. and Hughes, C.W. (2008) Calculating the ocean's mean dynamic topography from a mean sea surface and a geoid. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 25 (10). pp. 1808-1822. ISSN 1520-0426
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1175/2008JTECHO568.1
In principle the global mean geostrophic surface circulation of the ocean can be diagnosed by subtracting a geoid from a mean sea surface (MSS). However, because the resulting mean dynamic topography (MDT) is approximately two orders of magnitude smaller than either of the constituent surfaces, and because the geoid is most naturally expressed as a spectral model while the MSS is a gridded product, in practice complications arise. Two algorithms for combining MSS and satellite-derived geoid data to determine the ocean’s mean dynamic topography (MDT) are considered in this paper: a pointwise approach, whereby the gridded geoid height field is subtracted from the gridded MSS; and a spectral approach, whereby the spherical harmonic coefficients of the geoid are subtracted from an equivalent set of coefficients representing the MSS, from which the gridded MDT is then obtained. The essential difference is that with the latter approach the MSS is truncated, a form of filtering, just as with the geoid. This ensures that errors of omission resulting from the truncation of the geoid, which are small in comparison to the geoid but large in comparison to the MDT, are matched, and therefore negated, by similar errors of omission in the MSS. The MDTs produced by both methods require additional filtering. However, the spectral MDT requires less filtering to remove noise, and therefore it retains more oceanographic information than its pointwise equivalent. The spectral method also results in a more realistic MDT at coastlines. 1. Introduction An important challenge in oceanography is the accurate determination of the ocean’s time-mean dynamic topography (MDT). If this can be achieved with sufficient accuracy for combination with the timedependent component of the dynamic topography, obtainable from altimetric data, then the resulting sum (i.e., the absolute dynamic topography) will give an accurate picture of surface geostrophic currents and ocean transports.