Ocean acoustic models for low frequency propagation in 2D and 3D environments
Papadakis, J.S., Dougalis, V.A., Kampanis, N.A., Flouri, E.T., Pelloni, B., Plaisant, A., Noutary, E., Bjorno, N., Nielsen, P. and Zhou, D. (1998) Ocean acoustic models for low frequency propagation in 2D and 3D environments. Acta Acustica United with Acustica, 84 (6). pp. 1031-1041. ISSN 1610-1928
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Official URL: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/dav/aaua/199...
In this paper we are mainly concerned with the development of efficient computer models capable of accurately predicting the propagation of low-to-middle frequency sound in the sea, in axially symmetric (2D) and in fully 3D environments. The major physical features of the problem, i.e. a variable bottom topography, elastic properties of the subbottom structure, volume attenuation and other range inhomogeneities are efficiently treated. The computer models presented are based on normal mode solutions of the Helmholtz equation on the one hand, and on various types of numerical schemes for parabolic approximations of the Helmholtz equation on the other. A new coupled mode code is introduced to model sound propagation in range-dependent ocean environments with variable bottom topography, where the effects of an elastic bottom, of volume attenuation, surface and bottom roughness are taken into account. New computer models based on finite difference and finite element techniques for the numerical solution of parabolic approximations are also presented. They include an efficient modeling of the bottom influence via impedance boundary conditions, they cover wide angle propagation, elastic bottom effects, variable bottom topography and reverberation effects. All the models are validated on several benchmark problems and versus experimental data. Results thus obtained were compared with analogous results from standard codes in the literature.