Cross-resistance following artificial selection for increased defense against parasitoids in Drosophila melanogaster
Fellowes, M. D. E., Kraaijeveld, A. R. and Godfray, H. C. J. (1999) Cross-resistance following artificial selection for increased defense against parasitoids in Drosophila melanogaster. Evolution, 53 (3). pp. 966-972. ISSN 0014-3820
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An increase in resistance to one natural enemy may result in no correlated change, a positive correlated change, or a negative correlated change in the ability of the host or prey to resist other natural enemies. The type of specificity is important in understanding the evolutionary response to natural enemies and was studied here in a Drosaphila-parasitoid system. Drosophila melanogaster lines selected for increased larval resistance to the endoparasitoid wasps Asobara tabida or Leptopilina boulardi were exposed to attack by A. tabida, L. boulardi and Leptopilina heterotama at 15 degrees C, 20 degrees C, and 25 degrees C. In general, encapsulation ability increased with temperature, with the exception of the lines selected against L. boulardi, which showed the opposite trend. Lines selected against L, boulardi showed large increases in resistance against all three parasitoid species, and showed similar levels of defense against A. tabida to the lines selected against that parasitoid. In contrast, lines selected against A. tabida showed a large increase in resistance to A. tabida and generally to L. heterotoma, but displayed only a small change in their ability to survive attack by L. boulardi. Such asymmetries in correlated responses to selection for increased resistance to natural enemies may influence host-parasitoid community structure.