Regional Differences in the Prediction of Extratropical Cyclones by the ECMWF Ensemble Prediction System
Froude, E. S. R. (2009) Regional Differences in the Prediction of Extratropical Cyclones by the ECMWF Ensemble Prediction System. Monthly Weather Review, 137 (3). pp. 893-911. ISSN 0027-0644
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1175/2008MWR2610.1
A regional study of the prediction of extratropical cyclones by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Ensemble Prediction System (EPS) has been performed. An objective feature-tracking method has been used to identify and track the cyclones along the forecast trajectories. Forecast error statistics have then been produced for the position, intensity, and propagation speed of the storms. In previous work, data limitations meant it was only possible to present the diagnostics for the entire Northern Hemisphere (NH) or Southern Hemisphere. A larger data sample has allowed the diagnostics to be computed separately for smaller regions around the globe and has made it possible to explore the regional differences in the prediction of storms by the EPS. Results show that in the NH there is a larger ensemble mean error in the position of storms over the Atlantic Ocean. Further analysis revealed that this is mainly due to errors in the prediction of storm propagation speed rather than in direction. Forecast storms propagate too slowly in all regions, but the bias is about 2 times as large in the NH Atlantic region. The results show that storm intensity is generally overpredicted over the ocean and underpredicted over the land and that the absolute error in intensity is larger over the ocean than over the land. In the NH, large errors occur in the prediction of the intensity of storms that originate as tropical cyclones but then move into the extratropics. The ensemble is underdispersive for the intensity of cyclones (i.e., the spread is smaller than the mean error) in all regions. The spatial patterns of the ensemble mean error and ensemble spread are very different for the intensity of cyclones. Spatial distributions of the ensemble mean error suggest that large errors occur during the growth phase of storm development, but this is not indicated by the spatial distributions of the ensemble spread. In the NH there are further differences. First, the large errors in the prediction of the intensity of cyclones that originate in the tropics are not indicated by the spread. Second, the ensemble mean error is larger over the Pacific Ocean than over the Atlantic, whereas the opposite is true for the spread. The use of a storm-tracking approach, to both weather forecasters and developers of forecast systems, is also discussed.