Teaching assistants and pupils' academic and social engagement in mainstream schools: insights from systematic literature reviews
Cajkler, W. and Tennant, G. D. (2009) Teaching assistants and pupils' academic and social engagement in mainstream schools: insights from systematic literature reviews. International Journal of Emotional Education, 1 (2). pp. 71-90. ISSN 2073-7629
Official URL: http://www.enseceurope.org/journal/ENSECV1I2A.asp
The last 20 years have seen a huge expansion in the additional adults working in classrooms in the UK, USA, and other countries. This paper presents the findings of a series of systematic literature reviews about teaching assistants. The first two reviews focused on stakeholder perceptions of teaching assistant contributions to academic and social engagement. Stakeholders were pupils, teachers, TAs, headteachers and parents. Perceptions focused on four principal contributions that teaching assistants contribute to: pupils’ academic and socio-academic engagement; inclusion; maintenance of stakeholder relations; and support for the teacher. The third review explored training. Against a background of patchy training provision both in the UK and the USA, strong claims are made for the benefits to TAs of training provided, particularly in building confidence and skills. The conclusions include implications for further training and the need for further research to gain an in-depth understanding as to precisely the manner in which TAs engage with children.
ACHILLES, C. M., FINN J.D., GERBER S., ZAHARIAS J.B. (2000) It's time to drop the other shoe: the evidence on teacher aides. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association. Bowling Green, New York: November 15-17. AUDIT COMMISSION (1992). Getting the act together: provision for pupils with special educational needs: a management handbook for schools and local education authorities. London: HMSO. BACH, S., KESSLER, I., & HERON, P. (2006). Changing job boundaries and workforce reform: the case of teaching assistants. Industrial Relations Journal, 37(1), pp. 2-21. BENNETT, J., LUBBEN, F., HOGARTH, S., & CAMPBELL, B. (2005). Systematic reviews of research in science education: rigour or rigidity? International Journal of Science Education, 27(4), pp. 387-406. BLATCHFORD, P., RUSSELL, A., BASSETT, P., BROWN, P., MARTIN, C. (2004), The role and effects of teaching assistants in English primary schools (years 4 to 6) 2000-2003: results from the Class Size and Pupil Ratios (CSPAR) KS2 project, Institute of Education, University of London. BOWERS, T. (1997). Supporting special needs in the mainstream classroom: children's perceptions of the adult role. Child Care Health and Development, 23(3), pp. 217-232. BROER, S. M., DOYLE, M. B., & GIANGRECO, M. F. (2005). Perspectives of students with intellectual disabilities about their experiences with paraprofessional support. Exceptional Children, 71(4), pp. 415-430. CAJKLER, W., TENNANT, G., COOPER, P. W., SAGE, R., TANSEY, R., TAYLOR, C., TUCKER, S., & TIKNAZ, Y. (2006). A systematic literature review on the perceptions of ways in which support staff work to support pupils' social and academic engagement in primary classrooms (1988-2003). London: EPPI Centre, Institute of Education. CAJKLER, W., TENNANT, G., TIKNAZ, Y., SAGE, R., TAYLOR, C., TUCKER, S., TANSEY, R., & COOPER, P. W. (2007a). A systematic literature review on the perceptions of ways in which teaching assistants work to support pupils’ social and academic engagement in secondary classrooms (1988–2005). London: EPPI Centre, Institute of Education. CAJKLER, W., TENNANT, G., TIKNAZ, Y., SAGE, R., TUCKER, S., & TAYLOR, C. (2007b). A systematic literature review on how training and professional development activities impact on teaching assistants’ classroom practice (1988-2006). London: EPPI Centre, Institute of Education. DES (1978). Report of the Committee of Inquiry into the education of handicapped children and young people, chaired by Baroness Mary Warnock. London: HMSO. DFEE (1999). Additional literacy support. London: DfEE. DFES (2000). Working with teacihng assistants: a good practice guide. London: DfES. DFES (2002). Schools achieving success. London: HMSO. DFES (2003). Raising standards and tackling workload: a national agreement. London: HMSO. DFES (2004). Removing barriers to achievement: the Government's strategy for SEN. Executive summary. London: HMSO. DFES (2007). National statistics first release: school workforce in England. London: Department for Education and Skills. EBERSOLD, S. (2003). Inclusion and mainstream education: an equal cooperation system. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 18(1), pp. 89-107. EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES COMMISSION (2007). Valuable assets: a general formal investigation into the role and status of classroom assistants in Scottish schools, summary report. Glasgow: EOC. FARRELL, P., BALSHAW, M. H., & POLAT, F. (1999). The management, role and training of learning support assistants. London: DfEE. FOX, G. (1998). A handbook for learning support assistants: teachers and assistants working together. London: David Fulton Publishers. FRENCH, N. K. (2001). Supervising paraprofessionals: a survey of teacher practices. Journal of Special Education, 35(1), pp. 41-53. GIANGRECO, M. F., EDELMAN, S. W., LUISELLI, T. E., & MACFARLAND, S. Z. C. (1997). Helping or hovering? Effects of instructional assistant proximity on students with disabilites. Exceptional Children, 65(1), pp. 7-18. GITTMAN, E., & BERGER, R. (1997). Impact of teacher education courses on paraprofessionals' job performance, knowledge and goals. Conference paper at Annual Meeting of the Northeastern Educational Research Association 22nd October 1997. HANCOCK, R., SWANN, W., MARR, A., & TURNER, J. (2001). Classroom Assistants in the Primary School: Employment and Deployment (pp. 1-23): The Open University Faculty of Education and Language Studies. HMI (1992). Non-teaching staff in schools. London: HMSO. HOWES, A., FARRELL, P., KAPLAN, I., & MOSS, S. (2003). The impact of paid adult support on the participation and learning of pupils in mainstream schools. London: EPPI-Centre, Institute of Education. HUGHES, M., & WESTGATE, D. (1997). Assistants as talk-partners in early-years classrooms: some issues of support and development. Educational Review, 49(1), pp. 5-12. HUTCHINGS, M. (1997). The impact of a specialist teacher assistant training programme on the development of classroom assistants Early Years, 18(1), pp. 35-39. JARVIS, J. (2003). 'It's more peaceful without any support': what do deaf pupls think about the support they receive in mainstream schools? Support for Learning, 18(4), pp. 162-169. KERRY, T. (2001). Working with support staff : their roles and effective management in schools Harlow: Pearons Education. LACEY, P. (2001). The role of learning support assistants in the inclusive learning of pupils with severe and profound learning difficulties. Educational Review, 53(2), pp. 157-167. LEWIS, K. (2003). Colleagues or cultural brokers? Instructional aides' relationships with teachers and parents. Conference paper at Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association Chicago. MCGARVEY, B., MARRIOTT, S., MORGAN, V., & ABBOTT, L. (1996). A study of auxiliary support in some primary classrooms: Extra hands and extra eyes. Educational Research, 38(3), pp. 293-305. MOSHOYANNIS, T., PICKETT, A. L., & GRANICK, L. (1999). The evolving roles and education/training needs of teacher and paraprofessional teams in New York City public schools: results of survey and focus group research. New York: New York City Board of Education. NATIONAL CENTER FOR EDUCATION STATISTICS (2003). Digest of education statistics. Washington DC: US Department of Education. PICKETT, A. L. (1996). Facttors that influence the performance, development and supervision of paraeducators in inclusive classrooms. TASH Newsletter, 22(9), pp. 7-8. ROAF, C. (2003). Learning support assistants talk about inclusion. In M. Nind, J. Rix, K. Sheehy & K. Simmons (eds.), Inclusive education: diverse perspectives. (pp. 221-240). London: David Fulton Publishers. ROMANO, J. L. (1999). Prevention training of paraprofessionals in the schools: an examination of relevancy and effectiveness. Journal of Drug Education, 29(4), pp. 373-386. RUSSELL, A., BLATCHFORD, P., BASSETT, P., BROWN, P., & MARTIN, C. (2005). The views of teaching assistants in English Key Stage 2 classes on thier role, training and job satisfaction. Educational Research, 47(2), pp. 175-189. SAVAGE, R., & CARLESS, S. (2005). Learning support assistants can deliver effective reading interventions for 'at-risk' children. Educational Research, 47(1), pp. 45-61. SCHMIDT, K., & GREENOUGH, R. (2002). Designing state and local policies for the professional development of instructional paraeducators. Portland, Oregon: Northwest Regional Educational Labaratory. SKÄR, L., & TAMM, M. (2001). My assistant and I: disabled children's and adolescents' roles and relationships to their assistants. Disability and Society, 16(7), pp. 917-931. SWANN, W., & LOXLEY, A. (1998). The impact of school-based training on classroom assistants in primary schools. Research Papers in Education, 13(2), pp. 141-160. TENNANT, G. D. (2001). The rhetoric and reality of learning support in the classroom: towards a synthesis. Support for Learning, 16(4), pp. 178-182. TERRELL, I. R., GINA, & DOWN, J. (2004). Developing the role and effectiveness of teacher support staff through an innovative online graduate programme. Conference paper at British Educational Research Association Annual Conference University of Manchester. 16th-18th September 2004. THOMAS, G. (1992). Effective classroom teamwork: support or intrusion? London: Routledge. TORGERSON, C. (2003). Systematic reviews. London: Continuum. TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT AGENCY (2005). Building the school team: our plans for support staff training and development 2005-06. London: TDA. UNISON (2004). School support staff survey 2004: commissioned from the Labour Research Department. London: UNISON. VULLIAMY, G., & WEBB, R. (2003). Supporting disaffected pupils: perspectives from the pupils, their parents and their teachers. Educational Research, 45(3), pp. 275–286. WALL, S., DAVIS, K. L., WINKLER CROWLEY, A. L., & WHITE, L. L. (2005). The urban paraeducator goes to colllege. Remedial and Special Education, 26(3), pp. 183-190. WILSON, V., SCHLAPP, U., & DAVIDSON, J. (2002). More than an extra pair of hands? SCRE research report. Edinburgh: Scottish Council for Research in Education.
Centaur Editors: Update this record