Speciation and variation in the occurrence of haloacetic acids in three water supply systems in England
Zhang, Y., Collins, C., Graham, N., Templeton, M. R., Huang, J. and Nieuwenhuijsen, M. (2010) Speciation and variation in the occurrence of haloacetic acids in three water supply systems in England. Water and Environment Journal, 24 (3). pp. 237-245. ISSN 1747-6593
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To link to this item DOI: 10.1111/j.1747-6593.2009.00200.x
An investigation into the speciation and occurrence of nine haloacetic acids (HAAs) was conducted during the period of April 2007 to March 2008 and involved three drinking water supply systems in England, which were chosen to represent a range of source water conditions; these were an upland surface water, a lowland surface water and a groundwater. Samples were collected seasonally from the water treatment plants and at different locations in the distribution systems. The highest HAA concentrations occurred in the upland surface water system, with an average total HAA concentration of 21.3 μg/L. The lowest HAA levels were observed in the groundwater source, with a mean concentration of 0.6 μg/L. Seasonal variations were significant in the HAA concentrations; the highest total HAA concentrations were found during the autumn, when the concentrations were approximately two times higher than in winter and spring. HAA speciation varied among the water sources, with dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid dominant in the lowland surface water system and brominated species dominant in the upland surface water system. There was a strong correlation between trihalomethanes and HAAs when considering all samples from the three systems in the same data set (r2=0.88); however, the correlation was poor/moderate when considering each system independently.