Techniques for image analysis of movement of juveniles of root-knot nematodes encumbered with Pasteuria penetrans spores
Vagelas, I., Pembroke, B. and Gowen, S. R. (2011) Techniques for image analysis of movement of juveniles of root-knot nematodes encumbered with Pasteuria penetrans spores. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 21 (2). pp. 239-250. ISSN 1360-0478
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1080/09583157.2010.535895
Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are the most significant plant-parasitic nematodes that damage many crops all over the world. The free-living second stage juvenile (J2) is the infective stage that enters plants. The J2s move in the soil water films to reach the root zone. The bacterium Pasteuria penetrans is an obligate parasite of root-knot nematodes, is cosmopolitan, frequently encountered in many climates and environmental conditions and is considered promising for the control of Meloidogyne spp. The infection potential of P. penetrans to nematodes is well studied but not the attachment effects on the movement of root-knot nematode juveniles, image analysis techniques were used to characterize movement of individual juveniles with or without P. penetrans spores attached to their cuticles. Methods include the study of nematode locomotion based on (a) the centroid body point, (b) shape analysis and (c) image stack analysis. All methods proved that individual J2s without P. penetrans spores attached have a sinusoidal forward movement compared with those encumbered with spores. From these separate analytical studies of encumbered and unencumbered nematodes, it was possible to demonstrate how the presence of P. penetrans spores on a nematode body disrupted the normal movement of the nematode.