Farmers' management of rice varietal diversity in the mid-hills of Nepal: implications for on-farm conservation and crop improvement
Rana, R. B., Garforth, C. and Sthapit, B. R. (2009) Farmers' management of rice varietal diversity in the mid-hills of Nepal: implications for on-farm conservation and crop improvement. Plant Genetic Resource: Characterization and Utilization, 7 (1). pp. 50-62. ISSN 1479-263X
To link to this article DOI: 10.1017/S1479262108048259
Season-long monitoring of on-farm rice (Oryza sativa, L.) plots in Nepal explored farmers' decision-making process on the deployment of varieties to agroecosystems, application of production inputs to varieties, agronomic practices and relationship between economic return and area planted per variety. Farmers deploy varieties [landraces (LRs) and modern varieties (MVs)] to agroecosystems based on their understanding of characteristics of varieties and agroecosystems, and the interaction between them. In marginal growing conditions, LRs can compete with MVs. Within an agroecosystem, economic return and area planted to varieties have positive relationship, but this is not so between agroecosystems. LRs are very diverse on agronomic and economic traits; therefore, they cannot be rejected a priori as inferior materials without proper evaluation. LRs have to be evaluated for useful traits and utilized in breeding programmes to generate farmer-preferred materials for marginal environments and for their conservation on-farm.
• Atlin GN, Cooper M and Bjornstad A (2001) A comparison of formal and participatory breeding approaches using selection theory. Euphytica 122: 463–475. • Bajracharya J (2003) Genetic diversity study in landraces of rice by agro-morphological characters and micro satellite DNA markers PhD Thesis, University of Wales, UK. • Bellon MR (2008) Do we need crop landraces for the future? Realizing the global option value of in situ conservation. In: Kontoleon A, Pascual U and Smale M (eds) Agrobiodiversity and Economic Development. USA: Routledge. • Brown AHD and Hodgkin T (2007) Measuring, managing and maintaining crop genetic diversity on farm. In: Jarvis D, 60 R. B. Rana et al. Padoch C and Cooper D (eds) Managing Biodiversity in Agricultural Ecosystems. New York: Colombian University Press, pp. 13–33. • Brush SB (1995) In situ conservation of landraces in centres of crop diversity. Crop Science 35: 346–354. • Brush SB and Meng E (1998) Farmers’ valuation and conservation of crop genetic resources. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 45: 139–150. • Brush SB, Taylor JE and Bellon MR (1992) Technology adoption and biological diversity in Andean potato agriculture. Journal of Development Economics 2: 365–387. • Byerlee D (1996) Modern varieties, productivity, and sustainability: recent experiences and emerging challenges. World Development 24: 697–718. • Carpenter D (2005) The in situ conservation of rice plant genetic diversity: a case study from a Philippine Barangay. Agriculture and Human Values 22: 421–434. • Ceccarelli S (2000) Wide adaptation: how wide? Euphytica(3): 197–205. • Chaudhary P, Gauchan D, Rana RB, Sthapit BR and Jarvis DI (2004) Potential loss of rice landraces from a Terai community in Nepal: a case study from Kachorwa, Bara. Plant Genetic Resource Newsletter 137: 14–22. • Cleveland DA, Soleri D and Smith SE (2000) A biological framework for understanding farmers’ plant breeding. Economic Botany 54(3): 377–394. • Dawson JC, Murphy KM and Jones SS (2007) Decentralized selection and participatory approaches in plant breeding for low input systems. Euphytica doi:10.1007/s10681-007-9533-0. • Frankel OH, Brown AHD and Burdon JJ (1995) The Conservation of Plant Biodiversity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. • Gorrez FD Jr and Chaurasia PCP (1997) Rice Production Guidelines: Non-Cash Input Technologies Hill Food Production Project, Nepal: DoA/MoA/HMG • Gyawali S, Joshi KD, Tiwari R, Shrestha P, Joshi B, Chaudhary B, Mudwari A, Baniya B, Subedi A, Bhandari B, Upadhyay MP, Tripathi M, Adhikari N, Shrestha K and Sthapit BR (2005a) Participatory plant breeding: a strategy of in situ conservation of rice landraces. In: Sthapit BR, Upadhyay MP, Shrestha PK and Jarvis DI (eds) Proceeding of On-farmConservation of Agricultural Biodiversity in Nepal. Vol. II. Managing Diversity and Promoting Its Benefits. Kathmandu: NARC, LI-BIRD and IPGRI, pp. 202–212. • Gyawali S, Sthapit BR, Bhandari B, Gauchan D, Joshi B, Paudel IP, Subedi SR, Upadhyay MP and Shrestha PK (2005b) Jethobudho enhancement I: a participatory method for on-farm management of agrobiodiversity. In: Sthapit BR, Upadhyay MP, Shrestha PK and Jarvis DI (eds) Proceeding of On-farm Conservation of Agricultural Biodiversity in Nepal. Vol. II. Managing Diversity and Promoting Its Benefits. Kathmandu: NARC, LI-BIRD and IPGRI, pp. 161–171. • Harlan JR (1975) Our vanishing genetic resources. Science 188: 618–621. • Hobbs PR, Harrington LW, Adhikari C, Giri GS, Upadhyay SR and Adhikari B (1996) Wheat and Rice in the Nepal Terai: Farm Resources and Production Practices in Rupandehi District, Nepal. Nepal: NARC and CIMMYT. • Hodgkin T, Rao VR and Riley K (1993) Current issues in conserving crop landraces in situ Paper Presented at the On-farm Conservation Workshop, Indonesia, 6–8 December. • Horneburg B and Becker H (2008) Crop adaptation in on-farm management by natural and conscious selection: a case study with lentil. Crop Science 48: 203–212. • Jarvis D and Hodgkin T (2000) Farmer decision making and genetic diversity: linking multi-disciplinary research to implementation on-farm. In: Brush S (ed.) Genes in the Field: On-farm Conservation of Crop Diversity. Boca Raton, FL: IPGRI, IDRC, and Lewis Publication, pp. 261–278. • Jarvis D, Mayer L, Klemick H, Guarino L, Smale M, Brown AHD, Sadiki M, Sthapit BR and Hodgkin TA (2000) Training Guide for In Situ Conservation On-farm. Rome, Italy: IPGRI. • Jarvis DI, Brown AHD, Cuong PH, Collado-Panduro L, Latourniere-Moreno L, Gyawali S, Tanto T, Sawadogo M, Mar I, Sadiki M, Hue NTN, Arias-Reyes L, Balma D, Bajracharya J, Castillo F, Rijal D, Belqadi L, Rana R, Saidi S, Ouedraogo J, Zangre R, de Santis P, Fadda C and Hodgkin T (2008) A global perspective of the richness and evenness of traditional crop genetic diversity maintained by farming communities.: 1–6 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences PNAS (USA) www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/ pnas.0800607105. • Joshi GR and Bauer S (2007) Cultivation and the loss of rice landraces in the Terai region of Nepal. Plant Genetic Resources: Characterization and Utilization 5(1): 1–6 doi:10.1017/S1479262107203788. • Khush GS (1984) Terminology for Rice-growing Environments. Manila, Philippines: IRRI. • Kieft J (2001) Indigenous variety development in food crops strategies on Timor: their relevance for in situ biodiversity conservation and food security. Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor, July 2001 http://www.nuffic.nl/ciran/ikdm/9-2/kieft.html accessed date:04/09/2003. • McGuire SJ (2007) Securing access to seed: social relations and sorghum seed exchange in Eastern Ethiopia. Human Ecology 36(2): 217–229. • Mulatu E and Belete K (2001) Participatory variety selection in lowland sorghum in eastern Ethiopia: impact on adoption and genetic diversity. Experimental Agriculture 37: 211–229. • Paudel D, Chaudhary P, Chowi KR and Ghimire H 2003 Case studies of seed production and marketing through farmers groups in Nepal. Discussion Paper No. 4. Bangor CAZS, UK and LI-BIRD, Pokhara, Nepal. • Perales RH, Brush SB and Qualset CO (1998) Agronomic and economic competitiveness of maize landraces and in situ conservation in Mexico. In: Smale M (ed.) Farmers, Gene Bank and Crop Breeding: Economic Analysis of Diversity in Wheat, Maize and Rice. USA: CIMMYT/Kluwer Academic Publisher. • Rana RB (2004) Influence of socio-economic and cultural factors on agro-biodiversity conservation onfarm in Nepal. PhD thesis, IRDD, The University of Reading, UK. • Rana RB and Sthapit BR (2006) Intensive data plot for understanding farmer’s decisions on management of agricultural biodiversity on farm. In: Sthapit BR, Shrestha PK and Upadhyay MP (eds) Good Practices: On-farm Management of Agricultural Biodiversity in Nepal. Nepal: NARC, LI-BIRD, IPGRI and IDRC. • Rana RB, Garforth C, Jarvis D and Sthapit BR (2007a) Influence of socio-economic and cultural factors in rice varietal diversity management on-farm in Nepal. Agriculture and Human Values 24(4): 461–472. • Rana RB, Garforth CJ, Sthapit BR, Subedi A and Jarvis DI (2007b) On-farm management of rice genetic diversity: understanding farmers’ knowledge on rice ecosystems and varietal deployment. Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter 152: 58–64. • Sadiki M, Belqadi L, Mahdi M and Jarvis D (2001) Identifying units of diversity management by comparing traits used by farmers to name and distinguish faba bean (Vicia faba L.) cultivars with measurements of genetic distinctiveness in Morocco Proceedings of the Legumed Symposium, Grain Legumes in the Mediterranean Agriculture, 25–27 October, Rabat, Morocco. Paris: AEP • Sadiki M, Jarvis D, Rijal D, Bajracharya J, Hue N, Camacho-Villa T, Burgos-May L, Sawadogo M, Balma D, Lope D, Arias L, Mar I, Karamura K, Williams D, Chavez-Servia J, Sthapit B and Rao VR (2007) Variety names: an entry point to crop genetic diversity and distribution in agroecosystems? In: Jarvis D, Padoch C and Cooper D (eds) Managing Biodiversity in Agricultural Ecosystems. USA: Colombia University Press, pp. 12–34. • Science Council Secretariat Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) System Research Priorities 2005–2015, Science Council Secretariat2005 • Smale M, Bellon M and Aguirre A (2000) Maize diversity, variety attributes, and farmers’ choices in southern Guanajuto, Mexico. Economic Development and Culture Change 50: 201–225. • Smale M, Bellon M, Jarvis D and Sthapit B (2004) Economic concepts for designing policies to conserve crop genetic resources on-farms. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 51: 121–135. • Sthapit BR and Rao VR (2007) Grassroots breeding: a way to optimise the use of local crop diversity for well-being of people Paper presented at the Tropentag Conference, 9–11 October, Witzenhausen, Germany. • Sthapit BR, Joshi KD andWitcombe JR (1996) Farmer participatory crop improvement. III. Participatory plant breeding, a case study for rice in Nepal. Experimental Agriculture 32: 479–496. • Sthapit BR, Bajracharya J, Subedi A, Joshi KD, Rana RB, Khatiwada SP, Gyawali S, Chaudhary P, Tiwari T, Rijal D, Shrestha KP, Baniya BK, Mudwari A, Upadhyay MP, Gauchan D and Jarvis D (2002) Enhancing on-farm conservation of traditional rice varieties in situ through PPB in three contrasting sites from Nepal. In: Witcombe JR and Parr LB (eds) Breeding Rainfed Rice for Drought-Prone Environments: Integrating Conventional and Participatory Plant Breeding in South and Southeast Asia. Proceedings of a DFID Plant Sciences Research Programme/IRRI Conference, Los Banos, 12–15 March. Philippines: IRRI. • Sthapit BR, Eyzaguirre PE, Jarvis DI and Rana RB (2008) The value of genetic diversity to resource – poor farmers in Nepal and Vietnam. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 6(2): 148–166 doi:10.3763.ijas.2007.0291. • Tripp R, Louwaars N, Joost van der Burg W, Virk DS and Witcombe JR (1997) Alternatives for seed regulatory reform: an analysis of variety testing, variety regulation and seed quality control. Agricultural Administration (Research and Extension) Network Paper No. 69. London: ODI. • Virk DS and Witcombe JR (2006) Trade off between on-farm varietal diversity and highly client-oriented breeding: a case study of upland rice in India. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 54: 823–835. • Witcombe JR, Joshi A, Joshi KD and Sthapit BR (1996) Farmer participatory crop improvement. I. Varietal selection and breeding methods and their impact on biodiversity. Experimental Agriculture 32: 445–460. • Witcombe JR, Joshi KD, Gyawali S, Musa AM, Johansen C, Virk DS and Sthapit BR (2005) Participatory plant breeding is better described ashighly client-orientedplant breeding. I. Four indicators of client-orientation in plant breeding. Experimental Agriculture 41: 299–319. • Wood D and Lenne JM(1997) The conservation of agrobiodiversity on-farm: questioning the emerging paradigm. Biodiversity and Conservation 6: 109–129. • Zeven AC (1998) Landraces: a review of definitions and classifications. Euphytica 104: 127–139. • Zimmerer KS (1996) Changing Fortunes: Biodiversity and Peasant livelihood in the Peruvian Andes. Berkeley: University of California Press.