Combined phylogenetic analyses reveal interfamilial relationships and patterns of floral evolution in the eudicot order Fabales
Bello, M. A., Rudall, P. J. and Hawkins, J. (2012) Combined phylogenetic analyses reveal interfamilial relationships and patterns of floral evolution in the eudicot order Fabales. Cladistics, 28 (4). pp. 393-421. ISSN 1096-0031
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2012.00392.x
Relationships between the four families placed in the angiosperm order Fabales (Leguminosae, Polygalaceae, Quillajaceae, Surianaceae) were hitherto poorly resolved. We combine published molecular data for the chloroplast regions matK and rbcL with 66 morphological characters surveyed for 73 ingroup and two outgroup species, and use Parsimony and Bayesian approaches to explore matrices with different missing data. All combined analyses using Parsimony recovered the topology Polygalaceae (Leguminosae (Quillajaceae + Surianaceae)). Bayesian analyses with matched morphological and molecular sampling recover the same topology, but analyses based on other data recover a different Bayesian topology: ((Polygalaceae + Leguminosae) (Quillajaceae + Surianaceae)). We explore the evolution of floral characters in the context of the more consistent topology: Polygalaceae (Leguminosae (Quillajaceae + Surianaceae)). This reveals synapomorphies for (Leguminosae (Quillajaceae + Surianaceae)) as the presence of free filaments and marginal/ventral placentation, for (Quillajaceae + Surianaceae) as pentamery and apocarpy, and for Leguminosae the presence of an abaxial median sepal and unicarpellate gynoecium. An octamerous androecium is synapomorphic for Polygalaceae. The development of papilionate flowers, and the evolutionary context in which these phenotypes appeared in Leguminosae and Polygalaceae, shows that the morphologies are convergent rather than synapomorphic within Fabales.