Mutation in TERMINAL FLOWER1 reverses the photoperiodic requirement for flowering in the wild strawberry, Fragaria vesca
Koskela, E. A., Mouhu, K., Albani, M. C., Kurokura, T., Rantanen, M., Sargent, D. J., Battey, N. H., Coupland, G., Elomaa, P. and Hytonen, T. (2012) Mutation in TERMINAL FLOWER1 reverses the photoperiodic requirement for flowering in the wild strawberry, Fragaria vesca. Plant Physiology, 159 (3). 1043 -1054 . ISSN 0032-0889
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1104/pp.112.196659
Photoperiodic flowering has been extensively studied in the annual short-day and long-day plants rice and Arabidopsis while less is known about the control of flowering in perennials. In the perennial wild strawberry, Fragaria vesca L. (Rosaceae), short-day and perpetual flowering long-day accessions occur. Genetic analyses showed that differences in their flowering responses are caused by a single gene, the SEASONAL FLOWERING LOCUS which may encode the F. vesca homolog of TERMINAL FLOWER1 (FvTFL1). We show through high-resolution mapping and transgenic approaches that FvTFL1 is the basis of this change in flowering behavior and demonstrate that FvTFL1 acts as a photoperiodically regulated repressor. In short-day F. vesca, long photoperiods activate FvTFL1 mRNA expression and short days suppress it, promoting flower induction. These seasonal cycles in FvTFL1 mRNA level confer seasonal cycling of vegetative and reproductive development. Mutations in FvTFL1 prevent LD suppression of flowering, and the early flowering that then occurs under LD is dependent on the F. vesca homolog of FLOWERING LOCUS T. This photoperiodic response mechanism differs from those described in model annual plants. We suggest that this mechanism controls flowering within the perennial growth cycle in F. vesca, and demonstrate that a change in a single gene reverses the photoperiodic requirements for flowering.