Improving promiscuous mammalian cell entry by the baculovirus AcMNPV
O'Flynn, N. M. J., Patel, A., Kadlec, J. and Jones, I. M. (2012) Improving promiscuous mammalian cell entry by the baculovirus AcMNPV. Bioscience Reports. BSR20120093. ISSN 0144-8463
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To link to this item DOI: 10.1042/BSR20120093
The insect baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) enters many mammalian cell lines, prompting its application as a general eukaryotic gene delivery agent, but the basis of entry is poorly understood. For adherent mammalian cells we show that entry is favoured by low pH and increasing the available cell surface area through transient release from the substratum. Low pH also stimulated baculovirus entry into mammalian cells grown in suspension which, optimally, could reach 90% of the transduced population. The basic loop, residues 268-281, of the viral surface glycoprotein gp64 was required for entry and a tetra mutant with increasing basicity increased entry into a range of mammalian cells. The same mutant failed to plaque in Sf9 cells, instead showing individual cell entry and minimal cell to cell spread, consistent with an altered fusion phenotype. Viruses grown in different insect cells showed different mammalian cell entry efficiencies suggesting additional factors also govern entry.