Environmental effects of Deccan volcanism across the Cretaceous-Tertiary transition in Meghalaya, India
Gertsch, B., Keller, G., Adatte, T., Garg, R., Prasad, V., Berner, Z. and Fleitmann, D. (2011) Environmental effects of Deccan volcanism across the Cretaceous-Tertiary transition in Meghalaya, India. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 310 (3-4). pp. 272-285. ISSN 0012-821X
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2011.08.015
The Um Sohryngkew section of Meghalaya, NE India, located 800–1000 km from the Deccan volcanic province, is one of the most complete Cretaceous–Tertiary boundary (KTB) transitions worldwide with all defining and supporting criteria present: mass extinction of planktic foraminifera, first appearance of Danian species, δ13C shift, Ir anomaly (12 ppb) and KTB red layer. The geochemical signature of the KTB layer indicates not only an extraterrestrial signal (Ni and all Platinum Group Elements (PGEs)) of a second impact that postdates Chicxulub, but also a significant component resulting from condensed sedimentation (P), redox fluctuations (As, Co, Fe, Pb, Zn, and to a lesser extent Ni and Cu) and volcanism. From the late Maastrichtian C29r into the early Danian, a humid climate prevailed (kaolinite: 40–60%, detrital minerals: 50–80%). During the latest Maastrichtian, periodic acid rains (carbonate dissolution; CIA index: 70–80) associated with pulsed Deccan eruptions and strong continental weathering resulted in mesotrophic waters. The resulting super-stressed environmental conditions led to the demise of nearly all planktic foraminiferal species and blooms (> 95%) of the disaster opportunist Guembelitria cretacea. These data reveal that detrimental marine conditions prevailed surrounding the Deccan volcanic province during the main phase of eruptions in C29r below the KTB. Ultimately these environmental conditions led to regionally early extinctions followed by global extinctions at the KTB.