Transport and distribution of lindane and simazine in a riverine environment: measurements in bed sediments and modelling
Allan, I. J., House, W. A., Parker, A. and Carter, J. E. (2004) Transport and distribution of lindane and simazine in a riverine environment: measurements in bed sediments and modelling. Pest Management Science, 60 (5). pp. 417-433. ISSN 1526-498X
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1002/ps.840
Aquatic sediments often remove hydrophobic contaminants from fresh waters. The subsequent distribution and concentration of contaminants in bed sediments determines their effect on benthic organisms and the risk of re-entry into the water and/or leaching to groundwater. This study examines the transport of simazine and lindane in aquatic bed sediments with the aim of understanding the processes that determine their depth distribution. Experiments in flume channels (water flow of 10 cm s(-1)) determined the persistence of the compounds in the absence of sediment with (a) de-ionised water and (b) a solution that had been in contact with river sediment. In further experiments with river bed sediments in light and dark conditions, measurements were made of the concentration of the compounds in the overlying water and the development of bacterial/algal biofilms and bioturbation activity. At the end of the experiments, concentrations in sediments and associated pore waters were determined in sections of the sediment at 1 mm resolution down to 5 mm and then at 10 mm resolution to 50 mm depth and these distributions analysed using a sorption-diffusion-degradation model. The fine resolution in the depth profile permitted the detection of a maximum in the concentration of the compounds in the pore water near the surface, whereas concentrations in the sediment increased to a maximum at the surface itself. Experimental distribution coefficients determined from the pore water and sediment concentrations indicated a gradient with depth that was partly explained by an increase in organic matter content and specific surface area of the solids near the interface. The modelling showed that degradation of lindane within the sediment was necessary to explain the concentration profiles, with the optimum agreement between the measured and theoretical profiles obtained with differential degradation in the oxic and anoxic zones. The compounds penetrated to a depth of 40-50 rum over a period of 42 days. (C) 2004 Society of Chemical Industry.