Planning autonomous vehicles in the absence of speed lanes using an elastic strip
Kala, R. and Warwick, K. (2013) Planning autonomous vehicles in the absence of speed lanes using an elastic strip. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, PP (99). pp. 1-10. ISSN 1524-9050
Full text not archived in this repository.
To link to this item DOI: 10.1109/TITS.2013.2266355
Planning of autonomous vehicles in the absence of speed lanes is a less-researched problem. However, it is an important step toward extending the possibility of autonomous vehicles to countries where speed lanes are not followed. The advantages of having nonlane-oriented traffic include larger traffic bandwidth and more overtaking, which are features that are highlighted when vehicles vary in terms of speed and size. In the most general case, the road would be filled with a complex grid of static obstacles and vehicles of varying speeds. The optimal travel plan consists of a set of maneuvers that enables a vehicle to avoid obstacles and to overtake vehicles in an optimal manner and, in turn, enable other vehicles to overtake. The desired characteristics of this planning scenario include near completeness and near optimality in real time with an unstructured environment, with vehicles essentially displaying a high degree of cooperation and enabling every possible(safe) overtaking procedure to be completed as soon as possible. Challenges addressed in this paper include a (fast) method for initial path generation using an elastic strip, (re-)defining the notion of completeness specific to the problem, and inducing the notion of cooperation in the elastic strip. Using this approach, vehicular behaviors of overtaking, cooperation, vehicle following,obstacle avoidance, etc., are demonstrated.
 R. Claes, T. Holvoet, and D. Weyns, “A decentralized approach for anticipatory vehicle routing using delegate multiagent systems,” IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst., vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 364–373, Jun. 2011.  F. Jiménez and J. E. Naranjo, “Improving the obstacle detection and identification algorithms of a laserscanner-based collision avoidance system,” Transp. Res. Part C, Emerg. Technol., vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 658–672, Aug. 2011.  S. Glaser, B. Vanholme, S. Mammar, D. Gruyer, and L. Nouveliere, “Maneuver-based trajectory planning for highly autonomous vehicles on real road with traffic and driver interaction,” IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst., vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 589–606, Sep. 2010.  R. W. Hall and C. Caliskan, “Design and evaluation of an automated highway system with optimized lane assignment,” Transp. Res. Part C, Emerg. Technol., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 1–15, Feb. 1999.  J. B. Sheu and S. G. Ritchie, “A new methodology for incident detection and characterization on surface streets,” Transp. Res. Part C, Emerg. Technol., vol. 6, no. 5/6, pp. 315–335, Dec. 1998.  J. Lee and B. Park, “Development and evaluation of a cooperative vehicle intersection control algorithm under the connected vehicles environment,” IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 81–90, Mar. 2012.  M. Sarvi and M. Kuwahara, “Microsimulation of freeway ramp merging processes under congested traffic conditions,” IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 470–479, Sep. 2007.  D. Mohan and P. S. Bawa, “An analysis of road traffic fatalities in Delhi, India,” Accid. Anal. Prev., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 33–45, Feb. 1985.  L. Vanajakshi, S. C. Subramanian, and R. Sivanandan, “Travel time prediction under heterogeneous traffic conditions using global positioning system data from buses,” IET Intell. Transp. Syst., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1– 9, Mar. 2009.  O. Brock and O. Khatib, “Elastic strips: A framework for integrated planning and execution,” in Experimental Robotics VI. New York, NY, USA: Springer-Verlag, 2002, pp. 329–338.  O. Khatib, “Real-time obstacle avoidance for manipulators and mobile robots,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Autom., St. Louis, MO, USA, 1985, vol. 2, pp. 500–505.  Y. K. Hwang and N. Ahuja, “A potential field approach to path planning,” IEEE Trans. Robot. Autom., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 23–32, Feb. 1992.  Y. Yang and O. Brock, “Elastic roadmaps-motion generation for autonomous mobile manipulation,” Autonom. Robots, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 113–130, Jan. 2010.  S. Quinlan and O. Khatib, “Elastic bands: Connecting path planning and control,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Autom., 1993, pp. 802–807.  R. Kala and K. Warwick, “Planning autonomous vehicles in the absence of speed lanes using lateral potentials,” in Proc. IEEE Intell. Veh. Symp., Alcala de Henares, Spain, Jun. 2012, pp. 597–602.  Y. Kuwata, S. Karaman, J. Teo, E. Frazzoli, J. P. How, and G. Fiore, “Real-time motion planning with applications to autonomous urban driving,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 1105–1118, Sep. 2009.  S. J. Anderson, S. B. Karumanchi, and K. Iagnemma, “Constraint-based planning and control for safe, semi-autonomous operation of vehicles,” in Proc. IEEE Intell. Veh. Symp., Jun. 2012, pp. 383–388.  K. Chu, M. Lee, and M. Sunwoo, “Local path planning for off-road autonomous driving with avoidance of static obstacles,” IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 1599–1616, Dec. 2012.  R. Kala and K. Warwick, “Multi-level planning for semi-autonomous vehicles in traffic scenarios based on separation maximization,” J. Intell. Robot. Syst.,Mar. 2013, doi:10.1007/s10846-013-9817-7, to be published.  S. K. Gehrig and F. J. Stein, “Collision avoidance for vehicle-following systems,” IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 233–244, Jun. 2007.  C. Frese and J. Beyerer, “A comparison of motion planning algorithms for cooperative collision avoidance of multiple cognitive automobiles,” in Proc. IEEE Intell. Veh. Symp., Jun. 2011, pp. 1156–1162.  R. Kala and K. Warwick, “Motion planning of autonomous vehicles in a non-autonomous vehicle environment without speed lanes,” Eng. Appl. Artif. Intell., vol. 26, no. 5/6, pp. 1588–1601, May/Jun. 2013.  A. Furda and L. Vlacic, “Enabling safe autonomous driving in real-world city traffic using multiple criteria decision making,” IEEE Intell. Transp. Syst. Mag., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 4–17, Spring 2011.  R. Schubert, K. Schulze, and G.Wanielik, “Situation assessment for automatic lane-change maneuvers,” IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst., vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 607–616, Sep. 2010.  J. L. Baxter, E. K. Burke, J. M. Garibald, and M. Normanb, “Shared potential fields and their place in a multi-robot co-ordination taxonomy,” Robot. Autonom. Syst., vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 1048–1055, Oct. 2009.  R. Gayle, W. Moss, M. C. Lin, and D. Manocha, “Multi-robot coordination using generalized social potential fields,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Autom., 2009, pp. 106–113.  R. Gayle, A. Sud, E. Andersen, S. J. Guy,M. C. Lin, and D. Manocha, “Interactive navigation of heterogeneous agents using adaptive roadmaps,” IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graphics, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 34–48, Jan./Feb. 2009.