The application of ichnofabrics towards bridging the dichotomy between siliciclastic and carbonate shelf facies: examples from the Upper Jurassic Fulmar Formation (UK) and the Jubaila Formation (Saudi Arabia)
Goldring, R., Taylor, A. M. and Hughes, G. W. (2005) The application of ichnofabrics towards bridging the dichotomy between siliciclastic and carbonate shelf facies: examples from the Upper Jurassic Fulmar Formation (UK) and the Jubaila Formation (Saudi Arabia). Proceedings of the Geologists Association, 116. pp. 235-249. ISSN 0016-7878
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An initial study of the ichnofabrics of the Upper Jurassic (Kimmeridgian) Jubaila Formation of Saudi Arabia shows that the ichnofabrics are closely matched to the relatively well-described ichnofabrics of the contemporary Fulmar Formation of the UK Continental Shelf (North Sea), in respect of the lower shoreface/offshore transition facies to offshore facies. The ichnology and ichnofabrics of the Lower Jubaila Formation show that deposition took place on an open-marine platform on the Arabian craton subject to periodic storm activity, but under a persisting equilibrium between sediment accumulation and subsidence. This is consistent with the moderately deep-marine foraminiferal assemblages and the presence of calcareous nannofossils. Cyclicity is absent, though storm beds may be grouped, in contrast with the genetic sequences present in the rift and halokinetic scenario of the North Sea. In contrast with the siliciclastic setting hardgrotinds (with Gastrochaenolites), more common firmground omission surfaces, and micritic mudstones with Chondrites and Zoophycos are notable features of the carbonate facies. In siliciclastic successions (parasequences) the latter ichnotaxa are generally regarded as having been deposited in rather deeper water, but in the carbonate Jubaila Formation are interpreted as being associated with local areas of lower turbulence. Likewise, the hardgrounds and firmgrounds, which have not been traced laterally, are tentatively regarded to be of local significance.