Hiatal surfaces from the Miocene Globigerina Limestone Formation of Malta: Biostratigraphy, sedimentology, trace fossils and early diagenesis
Gruszczynski, M., Marshall, J. D., Goldring, R., Coleman, M. L., Malkowski, K., Gazdzicka, E., Semil, J. and Gatt, P. (2006) Hiatal surfaces from the Miocene Globigerina Limestone Formation of Malta: Biostratigraphy, sedimentology, trace fossils and early diagenesis. In: Symposium on Biotic-Sediment Interactions in honor of Roland Goldring, Reading, ENGLAND, pp. 239-251.
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2008.01.035
The Miocene Globigerina Limestone of the Maltese islands contains widespread omission surfaces with very different characteristics and origins. The terminal Lower Globigerina Limestone hardground (TLGLHg) formed during a period of falling sea level. Coccolith assemblages suggest shallowness. Sedimentary structures and trace fossil assemblages, indicate increasing frequency of storm events and erosional episodes, towards the surface. Calcite cementation which took place around Thalassinoides burrows and formed irregular nodules was followed by dissolution of aragonite. It is suggested that lithification was linked to microbial reactions involving organic matter. In contrast two later surfaces, the terminal Middle Globigerina Limestone omissionground (TMGLOg), which marks the Lower to Middle Miocene boundary, and the Fomm-ir-Rih local hardground (FiRLHg) both contain early diagenetic dolomite. Lithification took place in two phases. The dolomite is interpreted to have formed beneath the sea floor: it was subsequently exhumed and partially corroded as the precipitation of calcitic and phosphatic cements took place around burrows open to the circulation of sea water. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.