The importance of precision in sampling sludges, biowastes and treated soils in a regulatory framework
Lambkin, D., Nortcliff, S. and White, T. (2004) The importance of precision in sampling sludges, biowastes and treated soils in a regulatory framework. Trac-Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 23 (10-11). pp. 704-715. ISSN 0165-9936
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1016/j.trac.2004.08.008
As part of the European Commission (EC)'s revision of the Sewage Sludge Directive and the development of a Biowaste Directive, there was recognition of the difficulty of comparing data from Member States (MSs) because of differences in sampling and analytical procedures. The 'HORIZONTAL' initiative, funded by the EC and MSs, seeks to address these differences in approach and to produce standardised procedures in the form of CEN standards. This article is a preliminary investigation into aspects of the sampling of biosolids, composts and soils to which there is a history of biosolid application. The article provides information on the measurement uncertainty associated with sampling from heaps, large bags and pipes and soils in the landscape under a limited set of conditions, using sampling approaches in space and time and sample numbers based on procedures widely used in the relevant industries and when sampling similar materials. These preliminary results suggest that considerably more information is required before the appropriate sample design, optimum number of samples, number of samples comprising a composite, and temporal and spatial frequency of sampling might be recommended to achieve consistent results of a high level of precision and confidence. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.