Enhanced phytoextraction: I. Effect of EDTA and citric acid on heavy metal mobility in a calcareous soil
Meers, E., Lesage, E., Lamsal, S., Hopgood, M., Vervaeke, P., Tack, F. M. G. and Verloo, M. G. (2005) Enhanced phytoextraction: I. Effect of EDTA and citric acid on heavy metal mobility in a calcareous soil. International Journal of Phytoremediation, 7 (2). pp. 129-142. ISSN 1522-6514
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1080/16226510590950423
Phytoextraction, the use of plants to extract heavy metals from contaminated soils, could be an interesting alternative to conventional remediation technologies. However, calcareous soils with relatively high total metal contents are difficult to phytoremediate due to low soluble metal concentrations. Soil amendments such as ethylene diaminetetraacetate (EDTA) have been suggested to increase heavy metal bioavailability and uptake in aboveground plant parts. Strong persistence of EDTA and risks of leaching of potentially toxic metals and essential nutrients have led to research on easily biodegradable soilamendments such as citric acid. In our research, EDTA is regarded as a scientific benchmark with which degradable alternatives are compared for enhanced phytoextraction purposes. The effects of increasing doses of EDTA (0.1, 1, 10 mmol kg(-1) dry soil) and citric acid (0.01, 0.05,0.25,0.442, 0.5 mol kg(-1) dry soil) on bioavailable fractions of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb were assessed in one part of our study and results are presented in this article. The evolution of labile soil fractions of heavy metals over time was evaluated using water paste saturation extraction (similar to soluble fraction), extraction with 1 M NH4OAc at pH 7 (similar to exchangeable fraction), and extraction with 0.5 M NH4OAc + 0.5 M HOAc + 0.02 M EDTA atpH 4.65 (similar to potentially bioavailable fraction). Both citric acid and EDTA produced a rapid initial increase in labile heavy metal fractions. Metal mobilization remained constant in time for soils treated with EDTA, but metal fractions was noted for soils treated with citric acid. The half life of heavy metal mobilization by citric acid varied between 1.5 and 5.7 d. In the following article, the effect of heavy metal mobilization on uptake by Helianthus annutis will be presented.