Degradation and plant uptake of nonylphenol (NP) and nonylphenol-12-ethoxylate (NP12EO) in four contrasting agricultural soils
Sjostrom, A. E., Collins, C. D., Smith, S. R. and Shaw, G. (2008) Degradation and plant uptake of nonylphenol (NP) and nonylphenol-12-ethoxylate (NP12EO) in four contrasting agricultural soils. Environmental Pollution, 156 (3). pp. 1284-1289. ISSN 0269-7491
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To link to this item DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2008.03.005
Nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPEOs) are surfactants found ubiquitously in the environment due to widespread industrial and domestic use. Biodegradation of NPEOs produces nonylphenol (NP), an endocrine disruptor. Sewage sludge application introduces NPEOs and NP into soils, potentially leading to accumulation in soils and crops. We examined degradation of NP and nonyl phenol-12-ethoxylate (NP12EO) in four soils. NP12EO degraded rapidly (initial half time 0.3-5 days). Concentrations became undetectable within 70-90 days, with a small increase in NP concentrations after 30 days. NP initially degraded quickly (mean half time 11.5 days), but in three soils a recalcitrant fraction of 26-35% remained: the non-degrading fraction may consist of branched isomers, resistant to biodegradation. Uptake of NP by bean plants was also examined. Mean bioconcentration factors for shoots and seeds were 0.71 and 0.58, respectively. Removal of NP from the soil by plant uptake was negligible (0.01-0.02% of initial NP). Root concentrations were substantially higher than shoot and seed concentrations. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.