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The origin of brines underlying Lake Kinneret

Stiller, M., Rosenbaum, J. M. and Nishri, A. (2009) The origin of brines underlying Lake Kinneret. Chemical Geology, 262 (3-4). pp. 293-309. ISSN 0009-2541

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To link to this item DOI: 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2009.01.030

Abstract/Summary

Lake Kinneret (LK) is a relatively fresh water take situated in the Dead Sea Rift (DSR) Valley. The pore water (PW) in the sediments underlying LK pelagic zone have significantly higher salinity than that of the lake. The concentrations of major ion solutes (Cl, Br, Na, K, Mg) in PW from six 2.4 m to 5.1 m long sediment cores increase linearly with depth, indicating the occurrence of saline, deep seated brines. The upper part of the PW column is affected by the much fresher boundary with LK water and in most cores is characterized by gradually increasing Br/Cl and decreasing Na, Mg, K/Cl molar ratios, which tend to stabilize at about 2.0 m below the sediment surface. The 'stable' molar ratios in the deeper PW vary spatially and are supposed to represent the ratios in the deep underlying brines at each site. When plotted as Na/Cl vs. Br/Cl, the stable ratios of the northern and central part of the lake fall close to a straight line which characterizes many of the brines in the DSR Valley. However, the respective ratios in the southern part of the lake fall markedly off the DSR line. Moreover, Na/Cl and K/Cl molar ratios in the south are significantly higher than in the central and northern parts. delta Cl-37 measured in present LK water is ca. 0.0 parts per thousand. Along the PW column at the lake center, delta Cl-37 is becoming more positive with depth, reaching values of about +0.5 parts per thousand to +0.6 parts per thousand at 3 m depth. Even more positive values (+0.7 parts per thousand to +0.8 parts per thousand) are detected further north, in PW from deeper sediment layers. In contrast, in PW from the southeastern part of the lake, delta Cl-37 is becoming more negative with depth (-1.0 parts per thousand at similar to 2.6 m). It is suggested that these isotopic differences are also indicative of spatial variability in the PW brine sources. O-18 and D values in the PW of all 3 m long cores are similar and resemble the respective levels in LK. The source of H2O in 3 m deep, bed sediments is claimed to be the overlying lake water, and therefore water isotopes do not provide a clue regarding the original water isotopic composition in the underlying brines. PW from the southeast with higher K/Cl and Na/Cl but lower concentrations of these solutes, suggest leaching by meteoric water of sub-surface halite and post-halite salt formations, while the more saline PW from the northern and central parts, that have lower K/Cl and Na/Cl, and higher Br/Cl, are similar to DSR brines and represent underlying residual brines. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Item Type:Article
Divisions:Faculty of Science > School of Archaeology, Geography and Environmental Science
ID Code:4123
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