Remote sensing of tidal networks and their relation to vegetation
Mason, D.C. and Scott, T.R. (2004) Remote sensing of tidal networks and their relation to vegetation. In: Fagherazzi, S., Marani, M. and Blum , L. K. (eds.) The ecogeomorphology of tidal marshes. Coastal and estuarine studies (59). American Geophysical Union, pp. 27-46. ISBN 9780875902739
The study of the morphology of tidal networks and their relation to salt marsh vegetation is currently an active area of research, and a number of theories have been developed which require validation using extensive observations. Conventional methods of measuring networks and associated vegetation can be cumbersome and subjective. Recent advances in remote sensing techniques mean that these can now often reduce measurement effort whilst at the same time increasing measurement scale. The status of remote sensing of tidal networks and their relation to vegetation is reviewed. The measurement of network planforms and their associated variables is possible to sufficient resolution using digital aerial photography and airborne scanning laser altimetry (LiDAR), with LiDAR also being able to measure channel depths. A multi-level knowledge-based technique is described to extract networks from LiDAR in a semi-automated fashion. This allows objective and detailed geomorphological information on networks to be obtained over large areas of the inter-tidal zone. It is illustrated using LIDAR data of the River Ems, Germany, the Venice lagoon, and Carnforth Marsh, Morecambe Bay, UK. Examples of geomorphological variables of networks extracted from LiDAR data are given. Associated marsh vegetation can be classified into its component species using airborne hyperspectral and satellite multispectral data. Other potential applications of remote sensing for network studies include determining spatial relationships between networks and vegetation, measuring marsh platform vegetation roughness, in-channel velocities and sediment processes, studying salt pans, and for marsh restoration schemes.