In vitro evaluation of fibrolytic enzymes as additives for maize (Zea mays L.) silage - II. Effects on rate of acidification, fibre degradation during ensiling and rumen fermentation
Colombatto, D., Mould, F. L., Bhat, M. K., Phipps, R. H. and Owen, E. (2004) In vitro evaluation of fibrolytic enzymes as additives for maize (Zea mays L.) silage - II. Effects on rate of acidification, fibre degradation during ensiling and rumen fermentation. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 111 (1-4). pp. 129-143. ISSN 0377-8401
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2003.08.011
A study was carried out to determine the influence of fibrolytic enzymes derived from mesophilic or thermophilic fungal sources, added at ensiling, on time-course fermentation characteristics and in vitro rumen degradation of maize silage. The mesophilic enzyme was a commercial product derived from Trichodenna reesei (L), whereas the thermophilic enzyme was a crude extract produced from Thermoascus aurantiacus (Ta) in this laboratory. The fungus was cultured using maize cobs as a carbon source. The resulting fermentation extract was deionised to remove sugars and characterised for its protein concentration, main and side enzymic activities, optimal pH, protein molecular mass and isoelectric point. In an additional study, both enzymes were added to maize forage (333.5 g DM/kg, 70.0, 469.8, 227.1 and 307.5 g/kg DM of CP, NDF, ADF and starch, respectively) at two levels each, normalized according to xylanase activity, and ensiled in 0.5 kg capacity laboratory minisilos. Duplicate silos were opened at 2, 4, 8, 15, and 60 days after ensiling, and analysed for chemical characteristics. Silages from 60 days were bulked and in vitro gas production (GP) and organic matter degradability (OMD) profiles evaluated using the Reading Pressure Technique (RPT), in a completely randomised design. The crude enzyme extract contained mainly xylanase and endoglucanase activities, with very low levels of exoglucanase, which probably limited hydrolysis of filter paper. The extract contained three major protein bands of between 29 and 55 kDa, with mainly acidic isoelectric points. Ensiling maize with enzymes lowered (P < 0.05) the final silage pH, with this effect being observed throughout the ensiling process. All enzyme treatments reduced (P < 0.05) ADF contents. Treatments including Ta produced more gas (P < 0.05) than the controls after 24 h incubation in vitro, whereas end point gas production at 96 h was not affected. Addition of Ta increased (P < 0.01) OMD after 12 h (410 and 416 g/kg versus 373 g/kg), whereas both L and Ta increased (P < 0.05) OMD after 24 h. Addition of enzymes from mesophilic or thermophilic sources to maize forage at ensiling increased the rate of acidification of the silages and improved in vitro degradation kinetics, suggesting an improvement in the nutritive quality. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V All rights reserved.