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Major advances in fundamental dairy cattle nutrition

Drackley, J. K., Donkin, S. S. and Reynolds, C. K. (2006) Major advances in fundamental dairy cattle nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science (Centennial Edition), 89. pp. 1324-1336. ISSN 0022-0302

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Official URL: http://www.dairy-science.org/cgi/content/full/89/4...

Abstract/Summary

Fundamental nutrition seeks to describe the complex biochemical reactions involved in assimilation and processing of nutrients by various tissues and organs, and to quantify nutrient movement (flux) through those processes. Over the last 25 yr, considerable progress has been made in increasing our understanding of metabolism in dairy cattle. Major advances have been made at all levels of biological organization, including the whole animal, organ systems, tissues, cells, and molecules. At the whole-animal level, progress has been made in delineating metabolism during late pregnancy and the transition to lactation, as well as in whole-body use of energy-yielding substrates and amino acids for growth in young calves. An explosion of research using multicatheterization techniques has led to better quantitative descriptions of nutrient use by tissues of the portal-drained viscera (digestive tract, pancreas, and associated adipose tissues) and liver. Isolated tissue preparations have provided important information on the interrelationships among glucose, fatty acid, and amino acid metabolism in liver, adipose tissue, and mammary gland, as well as the regulation of these pathways during different physiological states. Finally, the last 25 yr has witnessed the birth of "molecular biology" approaches to understanding fundamental nutrition. Although measurements of mRNA abundance for proteins of interest already have provided new insights into regulation of metabolism, the next 25 yr will likely see remarkable advances as these techniques continue to be applied to problems of dairy cattle biology. Integration of the "omics" technologies (functional genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) with measurements of tissue metabolism obtained by other methods is a particularly exciting prospect for the future. The result should be improved animal health and well being, more efficient dairy production, and better models to predict nutritional requirements and provide rations to meet those requirements.

Item Type:Article
Refereed:Yes
Divisions:Faculty of Life Sciences > School of Agriculture, Policy and Development
ID Code:8479
Uncontrolled Keywords:metabolism , nutrition , molecular biology , splanchnic tissue

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