Role of temperature, moisture and Trichoderma species on the survival of Fusarium oxysporum ciceri in the rainfed areas of Pakistan
Inam-Ul-Haq, M., Javed, N., Khan, M. A., Jaskani, M. J., Khan, M. M., Khan, H. U., Irshad, G. and Gowen, S. R. (2009) Role of temperature, moisture and Trichoderma species on the survival of Fusarium oxysporum ciceri in the rainfed areas of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 41 (4). pp. 1965-1974. ISSN 0556-3321
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It has been observed in the present study that when spores of Trichoderma harzianum (Th-2) isolate were applied in the sandy clay loam soil and continuously incubated for 4 months at 25 degrees C and 35 degrees C and at three water potentials, -0.03 MPa, -0.3 MPa and <-50 MPa, it has resulted in significantly reduced (P<0.05), growth of Fusarium oxysporum ciceri (Foc) on branches of chickpea plant. The pathogen population was greatly reduced in the moist soil (43 MPa) when compared with the wet soil (-0.03 MPa) at both temperatures which was indicated by greater colonization and growth of T. harzanum-2 on the branch pieces of chickpea plants. The pathogen was completely eradicated from the chickpea branch pieces, after 6 months at 35 degrees C in the moist soil. In air-dry soil (<-50 MPa), Foc survived in 100% of the branch pieces even after 6 months at both temperatures. When chickpea plant branch pieces having pathogen was sprayed with Th-2 antagonistic isolates of Trichoderma spp., the Th-2 isolate killed the pathogen up to minimum level (10-12%) after 5 months at 35 degrees C in the sandy clay loam soil. It can be concluded that in chickpea growing rainfed areas of Pakistan having sandy clay loam soil, Foc can be controlled by using specific Trichoderma spp., especially in the summer season as after harvest of the crop the temperature increased up and there is rainfall during this period which makes the soil moist. This practice will be able to reduce the inoculum of Foc during this hot period as field remain fallow till next crop is sown in most of the chickpea growing rainfed areas of Pakistan.