Enhancement of germination of spores of Verticillium dahliae and Fusarium oxysporum esp vasinfectum in vascular fluid from cotton plants infected with the root-knot nematode
Katsantonis, D., Hillocks, R. J. and Gowen, S. (2005) Enhancement of germination of spores of Verticillium dahliae and Fusarium oxysporum esp vasinfectum in vascular fluid from cotton plants infected with the root-knot nematode. Phytoparasitica, 33 (3). pp. 215-224. ISSN 0334-2123
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Root-knot nematode [RKN] (Meloidogyne incognita) can increase the severity of Verticillium (V dahliae) and Fusarium (F oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum) wilt diseases in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). This study was conducted to determine some of the physiological responses caused by nematode invasion that might decrease resistance to vascular wilt diseases. The effect of RKN was investigated on spore germination and protein, carbohydrate and peroxidase content in the xylem fluids extracted from nematode-infected plants. Two cotton cultivars were used with different levels of resistance to both of the wilt pathogens. Spore germination was greater in the xylem fluids from nematode-infected plants than from nematode-free plants. The effect on spore germination was greater in the Fusarium-resistant cultivar (51%). Analysis of these fluids showed a decrease in total protein and carbohydrate levels for both wilt-resistant cultivars, and an increase in peroxidase concentration. Fluids from nematode-free plants of the Verticillium-resistant cultivar contained 46% more peroxidase than the Fusarium-resistant cultivar. The results provide further evidence that the effect of RKN on vascular wilt resistance is systemic and not only local. Changes in metabolites in the xylem pass from the root to the stem, accelerating disease development.