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High post-anthesis temperature effects on 3 bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain 4 transcriptome during early grain-filling

Kino, R. I., Pellny, T. K., Mitchell, R. A. C., Gonzalez-Uriarte, A. and Tosi, P. (2020) High post-anthesis temperature effects on 3 bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain 4 transcriptome during early grain-filling. BMC Plant Biology, 20. 170. ISSN 1471-2229

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To link to this item DOI: 10.1186/s12870-020-02375-7

Abstract/Summary

Background: High post-anthesis (p.a) temperatures reduce mature grain weights in wheat and other cereals. However, the causes of this reduction are not entirely known. Control of grain expansion by the maternally derived pericarp of the grain has previously been suggested, although this interaction has not been investigated under high p.a. temperatures. Down-regulation of pericarp localised genes that regulate cell wall expansion under high p.a. temperatures may limit expansion of the encapsulated endosperm due to a loss of plasticity in the pericarp,reducing mature grain weight. Here the effect of high p.a. temperatures on the transcriptome of the pericarp and endosperm of the wheat grain during early grain-filling was investigated via RNA-Seq and is discussed alongside grain moisture dynamics during early grain development and mature grain weight. Results: High p.a. temperatures applied from 6-days after anthesis (daa) and until 18daa reduced the grain’s ability to accumulate water, with total grain moisture and percentage grain moisture content being significantly reduced from 14daa onwards. Mature grain weight was also significantly reduced by the same high p.a. temperatures applied from 6daa for 4-days or more, in a separate experiment. Comparison of our RNA-Seq data from whole grains, with existing data sets from isolated pericarp and endosperm tissues enabled the identification of subsets of genes whose expression was significantly affected by high p.a. temperature and predominantly expressed in either tissue. Hierarchical clustering and gene ontology analysis resulted in the identification of a number of genes implicated in the regulation of cell wall expansion, predominantly expressed in the pericarp and significantly down26 regulated under high p.a. temperatures, including endoglucanase, xyloglucan endotransglycosylases and a β27 expansin. An over-representation of genes involved in the ‘cuticle development’ functional pathway that were expressed in the pericarp and affected by high p.a. temperatures was also observed. Conclusions: High p.a. temperature induced down-regulation of genes involved in regulating pericarp cell wall expansion. This concomitant down-regulation with a reduction in total grain moisture content and grain weight following the same treatment period, adds support to the theory that high p.a. temperatures may cause a reduction in mature grain weight as result of decreased pericarp cell wall expansion.

Item Type:Article
Refereed:Yes
Divisions:Faculty of Life Sciences > School of Agriculture, Policy and Development > Biodiversity, Crops and Agroecosystems Division > Crops Research Group
ID Code:90129
Publisher:BioMed Central

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