Seroprevalence estimation and risk factors for A. marginale on smallholder dairy farms in Tanzania
Swai, E., Karimuribo, E. D., Ogden, N. H., French, N. P., Fitzpatrick, J. L., Bryant, M. J. and Kambarage, D. M. (2005) Seroprevalence estimation and risk factors for A. marginale on smallholder dairy farms in Tanzania. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 37. pp. 599-610. ISSN 0049-4747
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1007/s11250-005-4307-y
A cross-sectional serological survey of A. marginale was conducted on 200 randomly selected smallholder farms in each of the Tanga and Iringa Regions of Tanzania between January and April 1999. Sera, from dairy cattle of all ages, sexes and breeds were tested for antibodies against A. marginale using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibodies to A. marginale were present in cattle throughout the study areas and the overall prevalence was 20% for Tanga and 37% for Iringa. The forces of infection based on the age seroprevalence profile were estimated at 8 for Tanga and 15 for Iringa per 100 cattle years-risk, respectively. In both regions, seroprevalence increased with age (β = 0.01 and 0.017 per year of age, p < 0.005, in Tanga and Iringa, respectively). Older animals in Iringa were significantly and negatively associated with decreased seropositivity (β = −0.002, p = 0.0029). Further results of logistic regression models reveal that geographic location of animals in Tanga was associated with seropositivity (odds ratio (OR) = 2.94, p = 0.005, for Tanga Rural and OR = 2.38, p = 0.066, for Muheza). Animals acquired as a gift in Iringa had higher odds for seropositivity than brought-in cattle (OR = 2.44, p = 0.005). Our study has identified and quantified some key risk factors that can guide planners devising disease control strategies.