The development of indigo reduction methods and pre-reduced indigo products
Blackburn, R. S., Bechtold, T. and John, P. (2009) The development of indigo reduction methods and pre-reduced indigo products. Coloration Technology, 125 (4). pp. 193-207. ISSN 1472-3581
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1111/j.1478-4408.2009.00197.x
The continuing importance of blue denim maintains indigo as an important vat dye industrially. In this review, we examine the various methods that have been used in the past and are currently used to reduce and dissolve indigo for dyeing. We discuss recent insights into the bacterial fermentation technology, the advantages and disadvantages of the direct chemical methods that have predominated for the last century and potentially cleaner technologies of catalytic hydrogenation and electrochemistry, which are becoming increasingly important. With considerations of environmental impact high on the dyeing industry's agenda, we also discuss the developments that have led to the production of pre-reduced indigo.