Plant pathogens as suppressors of host defense
Metraux, J. P., Jackson, R. W., Schnettler, E. and Goldbach, R. W. (2009) Plant pathogens as suppressors of host defense. In: Plant Innate Immunity. Advances in Botanical Research, 51. Academic Press Ltd-Elsevier Science Ltd, London, pp. 39-89. ISBN 9780123748348
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1016/s0065-2296(09)51002-6
This chapter reviews our current knowledge about mechanisms of suppression developed by pathogens to avoid host defense responses. In general, plants perceive pathogens by diverse pathogen- or microbe- or even damage-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs, MAMPs, DAMPs) and induce a variety of defense mechanisms referred to as horizontal or basal resistance, nowadays designated PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). In addition, plants can also recognize specific pathogen-derived effectors and have derived a highly specific defense response termed effector-triggered immunity (ETI), classically called R gene-mediated, specific or vertical resistance. Both PTI and ETI are responses to potential dangers and have common components. Fungal, oomycete, and bacterial pathogens have evolved various effector-based mechanisms of suppression that interfere with such components. Plants strongly depend on RNA gene silencing to interfere with viral pathogens. Plant viruses counteract this response by encoding suppressor proteins of RNA silencing.