Plant chemistry and aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera : Braconidae): Imprinting and memory
van Emden, H. F., Storeck, A. P., Douloumpaka, S., Eleftherianos, I., Poppy, G. M. and Powell, W. (2008) Plant chemistry and aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera : Braconidae): Imprinting and memory. European Journal of Entomology, 105 (3). pp. 477-483. ISSN 1210-5759
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Emerging parasitoids of aphids encounter secondary plant chemistry from cues left by the mother parasitoid at oviposition and from the plant-feeding of the host aphid. In practice, however, it is secondary plant cheinistry oil the Surface of the aphid mummy which influences parasitoid olfactory behaviour. Offspring of Aphidius colemani reared oil Myzus persicae on artificial diet did no distinguish between the odours of bean and cabbage, but showed a clear preference for cabbage odour if sinigrin had been painted oil the back of the mummy. Similarly Aphidius rhopalosiphi reared on Metopolophium dirhodum on wheat preferred the odour of wheat plants grown near tomato plants to odour of wheat alone if the wheat plants oil which they had been reared had been exposed to the volatiles of nearby tomato plants. Aphidius rhopalosiphi reared on M dirhodum, and removed from the mummy before emergence, showed a preference for the odour of a different wheat cultivar if they had contacted a mummy from that cultivar, and similar results were obtained with A. colemani naturally emerged from M. persicae mummies. Aphidius colemani emerged from mummies oil one crucifer were allowed to contact in sequence (for 45 min each) mummies from two different crucifers. The mumber of attacks made in 10 min oil M. persicae was always significantly higher when aphids were feeding oil the same plant as the origin of the last MUMMY offered, or oil the second plant if aphids feeding on the third plant were not included. Chilling emerged A. colemani for 24 h at 5 degrees C appeared to erase the imprint of secondary plant chemistry, and they no longer showed host plant odour preferences in the olfactometer. When the parasitoids were chilled after three Successive mummy experiences, memory of the last experience appeared at least temporarily erased and preference was then shown for the chemistry of the second experience.
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