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Floral morphology and development in quillajaceae and surianaceae (Fabales), the species-poor relatives of leguminosae and polygalaceae

Bello, M. A., Hawkins, J. A. and Rudall, P. J. (2007) Floral morphology and development in quillajaceae and surianaceae (Fabales), the species-poor relatives of leguminosae and polygalaceae. Annals of Botany, 100 (7). pp. 1491-1505. ISSN 0305-7364

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To link to this item DOI: 10.1093/aob/mcm228

Abstract/Summary

Background and Aims: Molecular phylogenies have suggested a new circumscription for Fabales to include Leguminosae, Quillajaceae, Surianaceae and Polygalaceae. However, recent attempts to reconstruct the interfamilial relationships of the order have resulted in several alternative hypotheses, including a sister relationship between Quillajaceae and Surianaceae, the two species-poor families of Fabales. Here, floral morphology and ontogeny of these two families are investigated to explore evidence of a potential relationship between them. Floral traits are discussed with respect to early radiation in the order. Methods: Floral buds of representatives of Quillajaceae and Surianaceae were dissected and observed using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Key Results Quillajaceae and Surianaceae possess some common traits, such as inflorescence morphology and perianth initiation, but development and organization of their reproductive whorls differ. In Quillaja, initiation of the diplostemonous androecium is unidirectional, overlapping with the petal primordia. In contrast, Suriana is obdiplostemonous, and floral organ initiation is simultaneous. Independent initiation of five carpels is common to both Quillaja and Suriana, but subsequent development differs; the antesepalous carpels of Quillaja become fused proximally and exhibit two rows of ovules, and in Suriana the gynoecium is apocarpous, gynobasic, with antepetalous biovulate carpels. Conclusions: Differences in the reproductive development and organization of Quillajaceae and Surianaceae cast doubt on their potential sister relationship. Instead, Quillaja resembles Leguminosae in some floral traits, a hypothesis not suggested by molecular-based phylogenies. Despite implicit associations of zygomorphy with species-rich clades and actinomorphy with species-poor families in Fabales, this correlation sometimes fails due to high variation in floral symmetry. Studies considering specific derived clades and reproductive biology could address more precise hypotheses of key innovation and differential diversification in the order.

Item Type:Article
Refereed:Yes
Divisions:Faculty of Life Sciences > School of Biological Sciences
ID Code:9948
Uncontrolled Keywords:Fabales, Leguminosae, Eurosids I, floral ontogeny, Polygalaceae, Quillajaceae, Surianaceae, floral symmetry, DETARIEAE LEGUMINOSAE, ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY, SYSTEMATIC POSITION, FLOWERING PLANTS, REPRODUCTIVE STRUCTURES, CUPULE STRUCTURE, KEY, INNOVATION, CAESALPINIOIDEAE, ONTOGENY, ROSACEAE

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