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Origin and evolution of 3'UTR of flaviviruses: long direct repeats as a basis for the formation of secondary structures and their significance for virus transmission

Gritsun, T. S. and Gould, E. A. (2007) Origin and evolution of 3'UTR of flaviviruses: long direct repeats as a basis for the formation of secondary structures and their significance for virus transmission. Advances in Virus Research, 69. pp. 203-48. ISSN 0065-3527

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To link to this item DOI: 10.1016/S0065-3527(06)69005-2

Abstract/Summary

The 3' untranslated regions (3'UTRs) of flaviviruses are reviewed and analyzed in relation to short sequences conserved as direct repeats (DRs). Previously, alignments of the 3'UTRs have been constructed for three of the four recognized flavivirus groups, namely mosquito-borne, tick-borne, and nonclassified flaviviruses (MBFV, TBFV, and NCFV, respectively). This revealed (1) six long repeat sequences (LRSs) in the 3'UTR and open-reading frame (ORF) of the TBFV, (2) duplication of the 3'UTR of the NCFV by intramolecular recombination, and (3) the possibility of a common origin for all DRs within the MBFV. We have now extended this analysis and review it in the context of all previous published analyses. This has been achieved by constructing a robust alignment between all flaviviruses using the published DRs and secondary RNA structures as "anchors" to reveal additional homologies along the 3'UTR. This approach identified nucleotide regions within the MBFV, NKV (no-known vector viruses), and NCFV 3'UTRs that are homologous to different LRSs in the TBFV 3'UTR and ORF. The analysis revealed that some of the DRs and secondary RNA structures described individually within each flavivirus group share common evolutionary origins. The 3'UTR of flaviviruses, and possibly the ORF, therefore probably evolved through multiple duplication of an RNA domain, homologous to the LRS previously identified only in the TBFV. The short DRs in all virus groups appear to represent the evolutionary remnants of these domains rather than resulting from new duplications. The relevance of these flavivirus DRs to evolution, diversity, 3'UTR enhancer function, and virus transmission is reviewed.

Item Type:Article
Refereed:Yes
Divisions:Faculty of Life Sciences > School of Biological Sciences
ID Code:9996
Uncontrolled Keywords:3' Untranslated Regions/*genetics, Base Sequence, *Evolution, Molecular, Flavivirus/*genetics, Flavivirus Infections/*transmission, Molecular Sequence Data, RNA, Viral/chemistry, *Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid, Sequence Alignment

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